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      英語世界
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      10 Solutions to Poverty
      發布時間:2019年05月01日     鄒慧、李瑞林 譯  
      來源: 英語世界
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      10 Solutions to Poverty

      解決貧困的十種方案


      To many, the idea of finding solutions to poverty is a big and seemingly impossible undertaking, considering that 1.4 billion people in developing countries live on less than $1.25 a day. Another 842 million people, or one in eight people, do not have enough to eat, today. Almost two billion people lack access to clean water and 22,000 children die each day due to conditions of poverty.


      發展中國家有14億人每天的生活費用不足1.25美元,鑒于此,對許多人來說,尋求脫貧之法是一項似乎難以完成的艱巨任務。另有8.42億人,即1/8的世界人口,沒有充足的食物。由于貧困,近20億人無法獲取潔凈水,每天有2.2萬兒童夭折。


      These kinds of statistics are discouraging.


      這些統計數據令人沮喪不已。


      The good news is that there are solutions to poverty, they can happen, and poverty can be radically reduced, if not completely eradicated.


      令人欣慰的是,現在有了解決貧困問題的辦法,而且能付諸實施。即使不能完全消除貧困,也能大大減少貧困。


      1. Creating good jobs

      1. 創造良好就業機會


      Creating jobs is a great way to reduce poverty. When people have jobs, they have income, and when people have income, they can more easily get themselves out of poverty. The U.N. says that “unemployment and underemployment lies at the core of poverty. For the poor, labor is often the only asset they can use to improve their well-being.”


      創造就業機會是減少貧困的有效途徑。有工作,就有收入,有收入,脫貧就不再是難事。聯合國認為,“失業和就業不充分是貧困的核心所在。對窮人來說,勞動力往往是他們可以用來提升幸福感的唯一資產”。


      2. Educating women

      2. 女性教育


      The education of girls and women impacts the rest of the societies in which these girls and women live. A woman’s degree of education is linked to the age at which she marries and has children, to her health and diseases, to her economic opportunities, to her social standing, and to her general future well-being.


      女孩和婦女的教育影響到她們所處社會的其他方面。婦女的教育程度與婚育年齡、健康與疾病、經濟機會、社會地位以及未來的總體幸福感有關。


      3. Raising wages

      3. 提高薪資水平


      “A full-time worker with two children earning the minimum wage will still raise his or her family in poverty.” And this is an issue in almost every other country, especially in developing nations. Raising the minimum wages could potentially increase the health and well-being of millions.


      “一個領取最低工資的全職工人,如果養育兩個孩子, 全家仍會生活在貧困之中?!睅缀跛袊?,尤其是發展中國家都存在這一問題。提高最低工資標準有望提高數百萬人的健康水平和福祉。


      4. Microfinancing

      4. 小額信貸

       

      Microfinance is defined as the “supply of loans, savings, and other basic financial services to the poor.” Right now, only about 10 percent of the global population has access to traditional banking, according to the Gates Foundation. However, using microfinance, people who are unemployed or who have a low income could get small loans to help them become self-sufficient. An organization called Kiva has provided more than $329 million to 786,000 borrowers, with a repayment rate of 98.97%. Microfinance is a promising way to alleviate poverty.

       

      小額信貸是指“向窮人提供貸款、儲蓄和其他基本金融服務”。蓋茨基金會的數據顯示,目前,全球僅有大約10%的人口能夠使用傳統銀行業務。然而,小額信貸可使失業者或者低收入者獲得小額貸款,實現自給自足。一個名為“基瓦”的組織已經向78.6萬借款人提供了超過3.29億美元的貸款,還款率為98.97%。由此可見,小額信貸是一條前景可期的扶貧路徑。

       

      5. Gender equality

      5. 性別平等

       

      As the U.N. Development Programme says, “when women have equal access to education, and go on to participate fully in business and economic decision-making, they are a key driving force against poverty.” Not only this, but better gender equality raises household incomes and “translates into better prospects and greater well-being of children,” which is a smart way to reduce the poverty for future generations as well as our own.

       

      如聯合國開發計劃署所言,“婦女享有平等的教育機會,進而全面參與商業和經濟決策,就會成為脫貧的核心驅動力”。不僅如此,性別更平等,可以提高家庭收入,“給孩子造就更好的未來,帶來更大的福祉”。性別平等是減貧的智慧之舉,不僅利在當代,也利在后代。

       

      6. Transparency in government spending

      6. 政府支出透明

       

      Creating transparency in government spending of money can help reduce corruption in governments. When governments are accountable to their citizens for their action, or inaction, in different areas of the federal budget, the citizens will be able to accurately assess how well their leaders are leading their country. Also, it allows citizens to see if money is being taken away from poverty-reduction plans and into the pockets of their leaders, which could be a cause of a stagnant economy or job market.

       

      提高政府資金支出的透明度有助于減少政府的腐敗行為。如果政府就聯邦預算不同領域的作為或不作為向公民負責,那么公民就能對其領導人的領導力準確評估。此外,提高政府開支的透明度,公民也能了解政府資金是否從扶貧計劃向領導人的口袋轉移。中飽私囊也許是經濟或就業市場停滯的一個原因。

       

      7. Canceling national debts

      7. 取消國債

       

      As mentioned by Share the World’s Resources, “It is internationally recognized that the debt burden of the world’s poorest, most indebted countries has to be tackled if they are to set themselves on a path of sustainable growth, development, and poverty reduction.” This is why the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank have created the Initiative for Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPCs). The initiative helps with the debt relief to currently 23 poor countries (mostly in Africa) that are committed to eradicating poverty. There have been successes in a few countries thus far, and this initiative can help governments “get back on their feet” so that they can focus on developing for the future instead of trying to pay back what was spent in the past.

       

      如《分享世界資源》所述:“國際上普遍認為,世界上最貧窮、負債最多的國家要走上可持續增長、發展和減貧之路,就必須解決好債務負擔問題?!边@也是國際貨幣基金組織和世界銀行共同發起“重債窮國計劃”的緣起。該計劃幫助減輕志在脫貧的23個貧窮國家(主要在非洲)的債務。迄今為止, 一些國家已經取得了成功。這個計劃有助于窮國政府“重新振作”,以便集中精力為未來謀求發展,而不是想著用新錢還舊賬。

       

      8. Access to healthcare

      8. 醫療保健可及

       

      The President of the World Bank, Jim Yong Kim, says that he believes “universal health insurance coverage in all countries can help achieve a goal of ending extreme poverty by 2030.” He says that because about 100 million people are pushed into extreme poverty every year by having to spend money on health issues, and that because health issues push about another 150 million into severe financial hardship, universal health insurance could greatly relieve poverty, globally.

       

      世界銀行前行長金墉說,他相信“所有國家的全民健康保險體制有助于達成2030年消除極端貧困的目標”。他說,每年約有1億人因不得不花錢治病而陷入極端貧困,還有約1.5億人因治病而生活窘迫,全民健康保險體制則可以在全球極大緩解此類問題引起的貧困。

       

      9. Access to clean water and sanitation

      9. 潔凈水和衛生條件可及

       

      The World Bank says that access to clean water and sanitation is “one of the most cost-effective development interventions, and is critical for reducing poverty.” The reasons for this are that women can use the time that they would have spent fetching water to work and produce more, agricultural production could increase, and the costs of services and goods could go down. Not only that, but because diseases caused by unsafe drinking water and poor sanitation cause “the most significant child health problems worldwide,” having access to clean water could significantly lower the healthcare burden for many children.

       

      世界銀行認為,潔凈水和衛生條件可及是“最具成本效益的發展性干預措施之一,對減少貧困至關重要”。其原因是,婦女不用費時取水,會有更多時間去從事勞動和生產活動,使農業產量提高、服務和商品成本降低。不僅如此,飲用水不安全和衛生條件差引發的疾病造成“全世界最嚴重的兒童健康問題”,能夠喝上潔凈水可大大減輕許多兒童的醫療保健負擔。

       

      10. Nutrition, especially in infants

      10. 保證營養,尤其是嬰兒的營養

       

      Adequate nutrition is an incredibly important indicator of a person’s ability to get out of poverty, later in life. Those who are malnourished from the time of conception to 24 months postpartum “have a higher risk of lifelong physical and mental disability.” Because of this, they are “often trapped in poverty,” and are not able to make the full contribution to the “social and economic development of their households and communities, as adults.”

       

      營養是否充足是衡量一個人未來脫貧能力的極其重要的指標。從母親懷孕到產后24個月營養不良,則“終生身心殘疾的風險較高”。因此,這樣的人“經常會陷入貧困”,而且“成年后”也無法為“家庭和社區的經濟社會發展”貢獻出全部力量。


      (譯者單位:廣東外語外貿大學高級翻譯學院)

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