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      10 Solutions to Poverty
      發布時間:2019年05月01日     鄒慧、李瑞林 譯  
      來源: 英語世界
      字號 簡體 繁體 打印

      10 Solutions to Poverty


      To many, the idea of finding solutions to poverty is a big and seemingly impossible undertaking, considering that 1.4 billion people in developing countries live on less than $1.25 a day. Another 842 million people, or one in eight people, do not have enough to eat, today. Almost two billion people lack access to clean water and 22,000 children die each day due to conditions of poverty.


      These kinds of statistics are discouraging.


      The good news is that there are solutions to poverty, they can happen, and poverty can be radically reduced, if not completely eradicated.


      1. Creating good jobs

      1. 創造良好就業機會

      Creating jobs is a great way to reduce poverty. When people have jobs, they have income, and when people have income, they can more easily get themselves out of poverty. The U.N. says that “unemployment and underemployment lies at the core of poverty. For the poor, labor is often the only asset they can use to improve their well-being.”


      2. Educating women

      2. 女性教育

      The education of girls and women impacts the rest of the societies in which these girls and women live. A woman’s degree of education is linked to the age at which she marries and has children, to her health and diseases, to her economic opportunities, to her social standing, and to her general future well-being.


      3. Raising wages

      3. 提高薪資水平

      “A full-time worker with two children earning the minimum wage will still raise his or her family in poverty.” And this is an issue in almost every other country, especially in developing nations. Raising the minimum wages could potentially increase the health and well-being of millions.

      “一個領取最低工資的全職工人,如果養育兩個孩子, 全家仍會生活在貧困之中?!睅缀跛袊?,尤其是發展中國家都存在這一問題。提高最低工資標準有望提高數百萬人的健康水平和福祉。

      4. Microfinancing

      4. 小額信貸


      Microfinance is defined as the “supply of loans, savings, and other basic financial services to the poor.” Right now, only about 10 percent of the global population has access to traditional banking, according to the Gates Foundation. However, using microfinance, people who are unemployed or who have a low income could get small loans to help them become self-sufficient. An organization called Kiva has provided more than $329 million to 786,000 borrowers, with a repayment rate of 98.97%. Microfinance is a promising way to alleviate poverty.




      5. Gender equality

      5. 性別平等


      As the U.N. Development Programme says, “when women have equal access to education, and go on to participate fully in business and economic decision-making, they are a key driving force against poverty.” Not only this, but better gender equality raises household incomes and “translates into better prospects and greater well-being of children,” which is a smart way to reduce the poverty for future generations as well as our own.




      6. Transparency in government spending

      6. 政府支出透明


      Creating transparency in government spending of money can help reduce corruption in governments. When governments are accountable to their citizens for their action, or inaction, in different areas of the federal budget, the citizens will be able to accurately assess how well their leaders are leading their country. Also, it allows citizens to see if money is being taken away from poverty-reduction plans and into the pockets of their leaders, which could be a cause of a stagnant economy or job market.




      7. Canceling national debts

      7. 取消國債


      As mentioned by Share the World’s Resources, “It is internationally recognized that the debt burden of the world’s poorest, most indebted countries has to be tackled if they are to set themselves on a path of sustainable growth, development, and poverty reduction.” This is why the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank have created the Initiative for Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPCs). The initiative helps with the debt relief to currently 23 poor countries (mostly in Africa) that are committed to eradicating poverty. There have been successes in a few countries thus far, and this initiative can help governments “get back on their feet” so that they can focus on developing for the future instead of trying to pay back what was spent in the past.


      如《分享世界資源》所述:“國際上普遍認為,世界上最貧窮、負債最多的國家要走上可持續增長、發展和減貧之路,就必須解決好債務負擔問題?!边@也是國際貨幣基金組織和世界銀行共同發起“重債窮國計劃”的緣起。該計劃幫助減輕志在脫貧的23個貧窮國家(主要在非洲)的債務。迄今為止, 一些國家已經取得了成功。這個計劃有助于窮國政府“重新振作”,以便集中精力為未來謀求發展,而不是想著用新錢還舊賬。


      8. Access to healthcare

      8. 醫療保健可及


      The President of the World Bank, Jim Yong Kim, says that he believes “universal health insurance coverage in all countries can help achieve a goal of ending extreme poverty by 2030.” He says that because about 100 million people are pushed into extreme poverty every year by having to spend money on health issues, and that because health issues push about another 150 million into severe financial hardship, universal health insurance could greatly relieve poverty, globally.




      9. Access to clean water and sanitation

      9. 潔凈水和衛生條件可及


      The World Bank says that access to clean water and sanitation is “one of the most cost-effective development interventions, and is critical for reducing poverty.” The reasons for this are that women can use the time that they would have spent fetching water to work and produce more, agricultural production could increase, and the costs of services and goods could go down. Not only that, but because diseases caused by unsafe drinking water and poor sanitation cause “the most significant child health problems worldwide,” having access to clean water could significantly lower the healthcare burden for many children.




      10. Nutrition, especially in infants

      10. 保證營養,尤其是嬰兒的營養


      Adequate nutrition is an incredibly important indicator of a person’s ability to get out of poverty, later in life. Those who are malnourished from the time of conception to 24 months postpartum “have a higher risk of lifelong physical and mental disability.” Because of this, they are “often trapped in poverty,” and are not able to make the full contribution to the “social and economic development of their households and communities, as adults.”