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      英語世界
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      翻譯擂臺第35期點評
      發布時間:2019年06月04日     發布人:nanyuzi  
      來源: 英語世界
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      【原文】

       

      士人獨立之精神

       

      [1]士之讀書治學,蓋將以脫心志于俗諦之桎梏,真理因得以發揚。[2]思想而不自由,毋寧死耳。[3]斯古今仁圣同殉之精義,夫豈庸鄙之敢望。[4]先生以一死見其獨立自由之意志,非所論于一人之恩怨,一姓之興亡?!璠5]來世不可知也,先生之著述,或有時而不彰。先生之學說,或有時而可商。[6]惟此獨立之精神,自由之思想,歷千萬祀,與天壤而同久,共三光而永光。

      ——陳寅恪

       

      陳寅恪先生是中國現代史上罕見的大學者,不僅因為他博學,而且因為其精神。所選文字是為王國維先生在頤和園投湖自盡兩年后所寫的一段碑文。他說:“我的思想、我的主張完全見于我所寫的王國維紀念碑中?!耶敃r是清華研究院導師,認為王國維是近世學術界最主要的人物,故撰文來昭示天下后世研究學問的人,特別是研究史學的人?!笨梢娖渌哂械臉酥拘砸饬x,同時也是五四精神的重要體現。

       

      就標題而言,對于“士人”,參賽者多譯成scholars、intellectuals等,也有極個別用了literatus(復數為literati),三個詞盡管都不錯,但比較起來,最后一詞更加古雅,多用于過去的文人,如:①司馬遷是中國歷史上著名的文人和史學家。(Sima Qian was a famous literati and historian in China’s history.)②王維正是這樣一位帶有文人氣質的山水畫家。(Wang Wei was such a landscape artist with literati temperament.)③前代文人作品一般以典故的形式被宋詞所吸納。(The former literati writings were the vital source of allusions in Song Ci.)鑒于此文寫于1929年,又特指王國維先生,故不妨譯為Independent Spirit of a Literatus。有的投稿漏掉了題目的翻譯,實屬不該。

       

      [1]中,對于“俗諦”,陳寅恪解釋:“在當時即指三民主義而言。必須脫掉‘俗諦之桎梏’,真理才能發揮,受‘俗諦之桎梏’,沒有自由思想,沒有獨立精神,即不能發揚真理,即不能研究學術。學說有無錯誤,這是可以商量的,我對于王國維即是如此?!辈贿^,對于后人來講,這里可廣義理解為擺脫世俗的桎梏。典型的參賽譯文,如“The ambition for scholars to do studies and scholarship is simply to be free from the shackles of the ordinary principles, so that the truth can be revealed.”“While reading books and pursuing their studies, intellectuals should free their heart and mind from the shackles of secular truth and the real truth would thereby be carried forward.”等,顯然,對于“桎梏”大都用了shackle,該詞固然有a restraint that confines or restricts freedom之意,但更主要的是something used to tie down or restrain a prisoner,故此處不一定這樣套用,而不妨譯為:Literati engaging in learning and research set their minds to free themselves from vulgarity and conventions, in that way truth can be further revealed.

       

      [2]中,“思想而不自由,毋寧死耳”,參賽譯文有“This Man chose to die rather than live on with his mind imprisoned.”“If thought enjoys no freedom, he may as well choose to die.”“he would rather die when bereft of the freedom of the mind”,但接續前文看,顯然主語過窄了;同樣,“I would rather die if our ideas can’t exchange freely.”“Without freedom of thought, I would rather die.”“Think without freedom, I’d rather die.”似乎把主語弄錯了;而“Failing to enjoy it’s freedom, they would prefer dead to living at all time.”“Imprisonment of thoughts would do no more good than physical death.”“Thought without freedom is better than to death, which is the common ideal pursued by sages of all ages and times.”等,又有些過度發揮了。就具體語境而言,此句不妨譯為:They'd rather die than be stripped of free-thought.

       

      [3]中,對于“斯古今仁圣同殉之精義”,一般譯得比較實,如“Saints from ancient to modern times, who fight to death for the cause of benevolence”“what saints and martyrs in all ages sacrifice their lives for”等。而“庸鄙”的“庸”是平庸之意,如“庸俗”“庸言”“庸醫”等;“鄙”,粗俗之意,如“鄙俗”“鄙夫”?!坝贡伞痹醋阅媳背赌淆R書·王思遠傳》:“臣實庸鄙,無足奬進?!泵鞔跏厝省秱髁曚洝肪碇校骸敖袢送愿柙娏暥Y為不切時務,此皆末俗庸鄙之見?!倍斞浮稌偶?致章廷謙》亦有:“據我所見,則昔之稱為戰士者,今已蓄意險仄,或則氣息奄奄;甚至舉止言語,皆非常庸鄙可笑?!惫首g文大可不必用despised/hated /reviled person or people等詞,而用mediocrity、common/ordinary people即可。此句不妨譯為:At all times we witness men of lofty ideals sacrificing for noble causes, which ordinary people can never nearly match.

       

      [4]中,“先生以一死見其獨立自由之意志”一般不難理解,譯文的意思也大體不錯,如“Mr. Wang demonstrated his spirit of independence in the way of death.”“Mr. Wang died to gain his independence and freedom of will.”“With his death, the respectable Wang demonstrates himself as a courageous scholar advertising independence and freedom.”,但在用詞和表述上還可再作推敲。對于“一姓之興亡”,有譯“for a family fame or fortune”“the fate of a family”等。此處涉及王國維的個人經歷——他曾任末代皇帝溥儀的私人教師,對清王朝情有獨鐘,因而關于他的死因有“為清殉身”之說,故此處指“清朝”(the Qing Dynasty)。而以他的死來“體現”(其獨立自由之意志),除了用demonstrate、manifest、reveal、advertise等,更確切的為materialize/materialization,即有“物化”“具體化”之意,如:①You are meant to realize that it is a materialization of your thoughts and feelings and images, that the inner self forms that world.(人們應認識到,是思想、感受和意象的具體化即內心感受形成了個人的世界。)②The creation of beauty is usually stated as the materialization of aesthetic consciousness.(通常把美的創造表述為審美意識的物化。)③The intensity of a thought or image largely determines the immediacy of the physical materialization.(一個思想或意象的強度在很大程度上決定了其具體化的實施。)故此,該句不妨譯為:The master’s decent death was not personal, nor dynastic as it has been widely speculated by the public, but a materialization of his independent will.

       

      [5]中,對于“來世不可知也”,一般譯成“The events of the future are difficult to predict.”“No one knows the future for sure.”“We do not know much about the future.”“We have no idea of what our future will look like.”等,這樣理解不免過于簡單化了;所謂“不可知”是指后人對其價值可能并不完全理解。至于“著述……不彰,……學說……可商”,是一種“互文”,即指其著述和學說盡管都會引起爭議,但這并不是先生的真正價值所在。綜合而言,不妨譯為:Later generations may not entirely grasp his values – his writings may have been doubted, his theories challenged.

       

      [6]是一句感情飽滿、擲地有聲、永傳后世的箴言。固然可以按部就班地譯成“But, it is only his independence of spirit, freedom of mind, that will endure everlastingly, shining eternally with the sun, moon and stars.”“But for the spirit of independence and the free thoughts will live long with the heaven and nature and shine forever with the sun, the moon and the stars, even passing thousand years.”“Thus, only his independent spirit and free will are immortal that can really be forever with the earth and the sun and the moon together.”等,但更可突破藩籬,作些大膽補充與調整,如:However, none of his independence of spirit or freedom of thought should be undervalued, since they will truly shine with the sun, moon and stars, lasting forever. 其中,“none of… undervalued”是一種增譯,即是將原文要表達的深意挖掘或強調出來,這并不是曲解原文,而是翻譯中必不可少的。類似的如(下畫線為增詞部分):①Reading makes a full man, conference a ready man, and writing an exact man.(讀書使人充實,討論使人機敏,寫作使人嚴謹。)【培根名句】②Perhaps the plot is simply too static and vast to capture on screen.(也許是由于這部作品情節中的畫面過于靜止和廣闊,因而較難實現理想的熒屏呈現。)③There is more entertainment in a good book than in a month of a serial TV program.(從閱讀一本好書中所得到的樂趣,比從看一個月的電視連續劇中所得到的樂趣還要多。)④三個臭皮匠,賽過諸葛亮。(Three cobblers with their wits combined equal Zhuge Liang, the mastermind.)⑤班門弄斧(Show off one’s proficiency with the ax before Lu Ban the master carpenter.)可見,“增詞而不增意”,恰恰是對原文的更加忠實。同時,該句式也是一種“反譯”,起強調作用。類似的如“不允許違反這個原則”可譯為:A violation of this principle is not allowed. 亦可為:No violation of this principle is allowed.

       

      關于“陳寅恪”名字的音譯,有的譯成Chen Yinke,有的為Chen Yinque,對此一直有不同意見。陳先生的學生王永興教授曾解釋,陳寅恪先祖原居福建上杭,屬客家系統。其六世祖始由閩入贛,落戶義寧??图胰肆晳T“恪”讀que。義寧陳氏一直保持客家傳統,故陳氏昆仲名中的“恪”字均讀que。少數詞典曾收入這個讀音,如商務印書館于民國四年(1915)出版的《辭源》,其“恪”字條下的注音是“可赫切(即ke),亦讀如卻(即que)”。1937年商務版《國語辭典》也收有“恪”的兩個讀音。1979年上海辭書版《辭?!纷⒁魹椋恒。╧e課,舊讀que卻)。1985年12月,在由國家語委、國家教委、廣電部聯合發表的《普通話異讀詞審音表》中,則明確規定:“恪”統讀為ke。當然這是國家認定的標準讀法,但并不妨礙我們在口語上讀到陳寅恪先生的名字時仍按習慣讀que。所以,二者都是可以接受的。

       

      其實,真正做好翻譯,絕不僅是語言的功夫,而是“功夫在詩外”,即要對具體背景、語境和相關的翻譯技巧有盡可能多的理解和掌握;同時,也不應缺乏譯者的個性。

       

      優勝譯文:

       

      @飛吧

       

      Scholars’ Spirit of independence

       

      By reading books and doing scholarly research, scholars shake off the shackles of the humble views, and carry forward the truth. If my soul were not free, I would rather die. The vulgars can never understand the subtle philosophies guarded by the sages through out the ages. Mr. Wang demonstrated his spirit of independence in the way of death, which was not caused by personal grievances, or the fall of a dynasty. ... We cannot know how the later generations would evaluate Mr. Wang's writings. Maybe they would not be taken seriously by people, or have some mistakes. But his spirit of independence and freedom of thought can last as long as the heaven and the earth, and shine together with the sun, the moon and the stars forever.

       

      @KnightHYY?...

       

      Intellectuals’ Spirit of Independence

       

      To throw off the shackle of worldly thinking, intellectuals devote themselves to academic pursuits in seeking truth. Without freedom of thoughts, men of learning would rather die than live in mental chains. This very freedom is what sages, both ancient and contemporary, have dedicated their lives to, an ambition too sublime for the mediocre to cherish. In a decisive manner, Wang Guowei‘s suicide shows his free will, which goes beyond resentment one could ever harbored or continuity of a good reputation.

      As no one is able to foretell the future, Wang Guowei’s works might not be well known to the world; his propositions might be debatable. Nevertheless, his spirit of independence and freedom of thoughts will last as long as the heavens and earth stand, and shine side by side with the sun, the moon and the starts forever.

       

      @英兒

       

      The Spirit of Scholars' Independence

       

      By Chen Yinke

       

      Scholars strive to free themselves from the shackles of the common sense so as to develop and promote the truth through study and research. It is better to die fighting for free thought. The ordinary and the vulgar are dwarfed by the virtue in sacrifice of the benevolent and the saint since time immortal. The late Mr. Wang's will of independence and freedom is well shown by his death, which is not related to personal grudge, nor the rise and fall of a clan. …As the afterlife is unknown, Mr. Wang's writings may sink into oblivion, and his doctrine may be still up for discussion. However, his independent spirit and free thought will be everlasting and shining as the sun, the moon and the stars throughout the ages.

       

      @-273.15℃

       

      The Independent Spirit of Scholars

       

      When it comes to learning, scholars must break their minds out of worldly shackles, thus carrying forward the truth. If one’s thoughts are not free, one might as well die. That explains why sages, ancient and modern alike, have sacrificed their lives for the sake of justice, which is beyond the reach of those vulgar. You died to show your independent and free will, rather than the gratitude and resentment of a person, or the rise and fall of a family. Afterlife is unknowable. Your works are sometimes unvalued and your doctrines are sometimes questionable. Only independent spirit and free thinking will be as lasting as the heaven and the earth and as shining as the sun, the moon and the stars throughout the ages.

      By Chen Yinke

       

      @?;輯?

       

      The independent mind of a true intellectual

       

      A true intellectual pursues his studies for the purpose of liberating his mind from the shackles of convention and ensuring the spread of true thoughts and wisdom, and he would rather die when bereft of the freedom of the mind. This is a conviction that the sages and scholars along the vast history of China have stood by even at the expense of their life; though for a philistine soul, it sounds almost downright unfathomable. A true intellectual he was, Mr. Wang Guowei chose to take his own life, not as a victim to feuds and vendettas, nor as a sacrifice for the success or survival of a feudal dynasty, but as a manifestation of his free and independent mind......Wang’s works might not be always commended in the future, nor his thoughts applauded by all, but his free and independent mind will surely pass down to many generations to come and echo in the hearts as long as the earth still goes around the sun, and the stars still shine.

      --Chen Yinque

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