Understanding Chinese Culture: The Challenge to the West
By David Bromwich
China has become an indispensable global player. Yet in the West, the dominant narrative has failed to understand that this does not mean that China has become Westernised. China is creating an alternative2 to the West.
The West has not made a serious effort to understand a Chinese perspective, and to a great extent has not appreciated that an alternative understanding exists. Confucius said: “Real knowledge is to know the extent of one’s ignorance.”3 The West, with its Westerncentric approach, through its ignorance and failure to understand China, has placed itself in peril4 of being left behind in a newly emerging world order.
We see this ignorance in headlines in Western newspapers, in which the Western perspective is dominant. There is selective reporting to portray5 negative impressions, and facts are often misrepresented. Too often Western reporting lacks critical evaluation, leading to very low credibility within the media to further the dialogue and promote a valid6 understanding of China. Fake news does exist.
A New Zealand newspaper reported that China was sending 120 medical doctors to a Pacific island to assist with its low level of community health. A positive action, one might think, but the focus of the story was to ask what was China doing in the Pacific, and how have we failed to the extent that we have allowed this to happen. What are the Chinese doing on “our patch”?
This kind of media attention does damage to the potential for the public to appreciate what China stands for, and gives a negative impression of China. China has little opportunity to present its own image to the West.
The challenge to the West, then, is to enhance an understanding and appreciation of what China is. How does China’s cultural heritage present a positive and optimistic advantage to the world in the longer term?
To understand this question it is important to consider the foundations of Chinese culture and society. China has more than 5,000 years of uninterrupted history and cultural development. We at least need to go back 2,500 years and study Laozi, and Taoism, for their cultural and philosophical roots, and Confucius for his social philosophy and impact on society.
While I am not an academic, I am a keen observer of China today, and where China has emerged from. To me, Taoism provides us with many aspects of the special nature of Chinese culture and philosophy. The concept of yin and yang is well known in the West, but not fully understood or practised by many, either individuals or leaders. Yin and yang bring us balance through the integration7 of opposites.
China has a cultural heritage of opposites creating balance. For example, crisis in Chinese, 危機, consists of two characters, wei and ji, to represent “peril” and “opportunity”.
In Chinese medicine, there is a holistic8 approach that treats the whole body, in which imbalance with yin and yang, hot and cold, are the cause of disease. The solution is to restore imbalance rather than targeting the specific symptom or problem area in isolation. The solutions offered tend to take a longer time to take effect, with a focus to work in harmony with the body. This is not to say that Western medicine is imperfect. I merely use this as an example of a Chinese approach to seeking solutions to problems.
I participated in an international forum titled Eco-civilisation and Antipoverty in Guizhou. Throughout the speeches there was common reference to harmony between man and nature. This concept has very deep roots in Taoist thinking.
In 21st-century China, the economic loss through environmental degradation9 fits very comfortably into the Chinese approach to addressing the establishment of an eco-society. Several international speakers referred to a decreasing confidence in some Western countries to maintain a global consensus10. The speakers presented an increasingly positive impression of China’s determination to participate in leadership of this consensus.
With reference to an eco-civilisation, China is already a leader in the transition11 to clean energy, and of all countries has made the major contribution globally to lifting people from poverty.
Chinese food is a Chinese culture that most of us feel we are familiar with. Underlying the creation of dishes is the philosophy of creating balance through a simple combination of a range of different elements. Sweet and sour is a wellknown example of apparently opposing tastes, but different textures and colour combinations are also valued.
Chinese traditional ink paintings are simple in presentation, but rich in images of the natural environment that mimic human nature. To fully appreciate Chinese art, these elements need to be understood. The bamboo is a symbol of elegance, and the hollow stem suggests modesty. The plum blossom is an element representing nobility and strength, emerging while the snow is still on the ground.
Confucius’ contribution to Chinese society also illustrates a difference from Western society. Eastern and Western philosophical aspects of society have a similar time span from Confucian and Greek times onwards, but the confluence is minimal. Put very basically, Eastern society places the community, or a concept of a big family, as the most important component of society. This can place all considerations of social issues in a subjective framework.
In Western society, it is the individual that is considered to be the unit of society, compatible12 with an objective analysis of issues.
I like to ask people: “Considering a monkey, cow and banana, which is the odd one out? Monkey, cow, banana?” The vast majority of Chinese will choose the cow as the odd one out because of the relationship between the monkey and the banana. The monkey eats the banana, so the banana gives sustenance13 to the monkey.
Western people invariably see the banana as the odd one out because they see the objective classification of the monkey and cow, with both being animals.
The consideration of these two responses, and extension into deeper philosophical understanding, presents a major difference between Chinese and Western thought. The Chinese have a much stronger sense of community and the interrelationship of things, compared with an individualistic approach.
Confucian scholar Mozi promotes a concept of da ai, a “big love” or, more appropriately, “respect for others and things”14. If expressed in an altruistic15 way, this makes for an easy, positive unification of people, countries, man and nature. Embracing an eco-civilisation and the Belt and Road Initiative are examples of the potential this unification can offer.
The challenge to the West is to embrace an alternative perspective on issues. It is time for Western media to seek a balance in reporting affairs, and critique the Western perspective. It is time for a Chinese voice to be allowed to be heard in the West.
Then public opinion can begin to adopt an appreciation of what China has to offer. Understanding Chinese culture has become indispensable to appreciate the complex world where China plays an increasingly crucial role. Leaders need this understanding.
Only then will a harmonious world order be allowed to develop freely, and the global consensus can become a peaceful one, and conflict diminished16.
2. alternative 替代方案；不同于常規的（觀點、見解等）。
5. portray 描繪；刻畫（人物等）。
6. valid 合理的；有效的。
7. integration 融合；一體化。
8. holistic 整體的；統一的。
9. degradation 惡化；降級。
10. consensus 共識。
11. transition 過渡；轉折。
12. compatible 協調一致；匹配。
13. sustenance 維持（生計）；生存。
15. altruistic 利他的。
16. conflict diminished本句為省略句，完整句子為：... and conflict can become diminished.