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      A Guangzhou Guide to Yum Cha
      發布時間:2020年02月01日     葛嬌嬌 譯  
      來源: 英語世界
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      A Guangzhou Guide to Yum Cha1

      廣州飲茶指南

       

      By Will Wu

      文/威爾·吳

       

      Acclaimed as the food capital of China, Guangzhou has lavish2 delicacies3 to offer gourmands4. Arguably, its most famed repast5 is yum cha (literally ‘drink tea’), or, to be more specific, yum jou cha6 ( ‘drink morning tea’).

       

      廣州被譽為中國的美食之都,各色佳肴豐富而奢侈,供美食愛好者品嘗。它最有名的一餐可以說是飲茶(字面意思是“喝茶”,也稱“早茶”)了,更確切地說是飲早茶(“喝早茶”)。

       

      Dating back to the Qing Dynasty, traditional yum cha refers not only to drinking tea but also to the devouring of dim sum, an abbreviated form of the phrase dian dian xin yi (‘little greetings’). This expression was supposedly coined during the Eastern Jin Dynasty. A general of the period was so moved by his soldiers’ devotion and valor that he had numerous types of local pastries delivered to the frontlines so they could feast, as a symbol of his salutations and appreciation.

       

      廣州的飲茶可追溯至清代。傳統的飲茶不僅指喝茶,還包括吃點心。點心是“點點心意”這一說法的簡稱,據說創造于東晉時期。當時有一位將軍見戰士們奮戰沙場,英勇殺敵,甚為感動,遂命人烘制各類當地糕點送至前線,犒勞戰士,表達對戰士的敬意和謝意。

       

      In olden times, Cantonese people used to enjoy yum cha at a very early hour, normally 5am or 6am – it was originally an exclusively morning refreshment7, hence the name. These days, many local teahouses and restaurants serve it all day.

       

      過去,廣東人喜歡一大早去喝茶,通常早上五六點就去。茶原本只在早上喝,因而得了早茶這個名字。不過現在當地很多茶館和餐廳全天都供應茶點。

       

      Pu’er, oolong and chrysanthemum are the most common varieties of tea served during yum cha, while ha gau (shrimp dumplings), siu mai (open dumplings, usually pork), feng jau (chicken feet), cha siu bau (barbecue pork buns), nor mai gai (sticky rice with chicken wrapped and steamed in lotus leaf), cheung fun ( rice noodle roll), lor bak go (turnip cake) and dan ta (egg tart) are among the most popular items wheeled past on a dim sum cart.

       

      普洱茶、烏龍茶和菊花茶是早茶供應的最常見的茶葉品種,而蝦餃、燒賣(通常為豬肉餡)、鳳爪、叉燒包、糯米雞、腸粉、蘿卜糕和蛋撻則是茶點車上推送的最受歡迎的茶點了。

       

      A standard pack of eating utensils8 for yum cha includes a little bowl with a spoon, a small teacup placed on a plate and a pair of chopsticks. All except the chopsticks are typically ceramic9. Though sometimes misused, the plate is actually meant solely for waste. Cantonese often use the first serving of tea to wash the eating utensils, a ritual to sterilize the implements.

       

      一套標準的茶點餐具包括:一只小碗里放一把勺、一個盤子上放一只小茶杯,還有一雙筷子。除了筷子,其他餐具通常都是陶瓷做的。盤子有時會被用錯,其實是用來裝食物殘渣的。廣東人有個習慣,就是用第一泡茶水燙洗餐具,給餐具消毒。

       

      Several interesting customs have arisen around yum cha, each with a colorful story about its origin. When a teapot refill is needed, the lid is simply left ajar10, stemming from a folk tale set in ancient southern China. A rich man asked for a top up11, but when the waiter lifted the teapot lid, the rich man claimed that the server had released a rare thrush12 and demanded compensation for his loss. As a result, teahouses started to ask diners to lift their own teapot lids as a signal for more hot water.

       

      關于早茶已經形成了幾種有趣的習俗,每個習俗的起源都是一個生動的故事。如果想給茶壺加水,只需將茶壺蓋揭開一半。這個習俗源自中國古代南方的一則民間故事。有個富翁要求給茶壺加水,可當服務員打開壺蓋時,富翁咬定他放走了一只稀有的畫眉,要求賠償損失。結果,茶館開始要求茶客們自己揭開茶壺蓋,以示想加熱水。

       

      When tea is served, it is customary to tap the table with two fingers of the same hand, as a way to say thank you to the person pouring the brew. This habit can be traced to Emperor Qianlong of the Qing Dynasty, at a time when he was traveling incognito13 to Guangzhou. When he and his bodyguards stopped for lunch at a local teahouse, the emperor poured tea for his companions. In order not to draw any attention, his followers tapped the table instead of kowtowing to express their gratitude.

       

      茶斟好后,茶客通常會用一只手的兩根手指輕扣桌面,感謝為自己斟茶之人。這一習俗可追溯至清代的乾隆皇帝。有一次乾隆皇帝微服出巡,行至廣州,與侍衛們在當地一家茶館停下吃午飯。席間,乾隆給侍衛們倒了茶。為了不引起別人注意,侍衛們輕扣桌面代替叩頭,表示感謝。

       

      Now that you know a little about the history and etiquette of yum cha, it’s time to try some authentic examples. We have rounded up some of the mostloved traditional spots serving up this Cantonese tradition.

       

      現在大家已經知道一些關于早茶的歷史和禮儀了,是時候去幾家實體店品嘗一下了。以下是我們收集的一些最受歡迎的廣式早茶老字號。

       

      Taotao Ju

      陶陶居

       

      Built in the reign of Emperor Guangxu, Taotao Ju is a time-honored brand in Guangzhou. In 2005, it was declared a municipal cultural heritage spot. Located on Dishifu Lu in Liwan District, the teahouse has maintained its Lingnan architectural style, with a hexagonal14 pavilion at the top of the building. Every day between 6am to 8am it is packed with senior citizens. Feng jau and ha gau are a must-try here, brought around on the traditional dim sum carts that are becoming increasingly scarce.

       

      陶陶居建于光緒年間,是廣州的一家老字號,2005年還被評為廣州市文物保護單位。陶陶居位于荔灣區第十甫路,茶館保持著嶺南建筑風格,屋頂蓋有一座六角亭。每天早上6點到8點,這里擠滿了上了年紀的茶客。鳳爪、蝦餃是這里必點的點心,放在傳統的點心車上送來,這種點心車已經越來越罕見了。

       

      Lianxiang Lou

      蓮香樓

       

      Lianxiang Lou was first started as a bakery in 1889 and earned its name from the high-quality lotus paste it used to make moon cakes. Located in the same neighborhood as Taotao Ju, Lianxiang Lou can handle 600 diners at one time. Cakes, such as chewy pork biscuits and preserved egg puff pastry, are the main attractions of this restaurant, while the cream custard bun is another appealing eat.

       

      蓮香樓于1889年開業,原是一家糕酥館,后因其用于制作月餅的蓮蓉用料講究,遂得其名。蓮香樓跟陶陶居位于同一條路上,可同時容納600多人就餐。其招牌糕點是雞仔餅、皮蛋酥等,而流沙包則是另一道誘人的點心。

       

      Panxi Restaurant

      泮溪酒家

       

      Situated inside Liwanhu Park, Panxi Restaurant offers not only traditional Cantonese dim sum but also a scenic view. Built in 1947, it boasts several well-known delicacies, such as rabbit-shaped ha gau, pear-shaped lotus paste puff pastry, thousand-layer pastry, deepfried dumplings, deep-fried soup dumplings and steamed water chestnut pudding.

       

      泮溪酒家坐落于荔灣湖公園內,這里不僅能品嘗到傳統的廣式點心,還有美景可供欣賞。泮溪酒家始建于1947年,有幾道美食頗具名氣,如綠蔭白兔餃、像生雪梨果、鶴鶉千層酥、蜂巢蛋黃角、生炸灌湯包和泮塘馬蹄糕等。

       

      Guangzhou Restaurant

      廣州酒家

       

      Currently, Guangzhou Hotel has a grand total of 11 branches. The location on Wenchang Nan Lu is the oldest, opened in 1935. Known as the ‘restaurant giant of Guangzhou,’ the brand is acclaimed for its crab meat soup dumplings and Shawan buffalo milk tarts. Hand in hand with its fame come steeper prices than the other restaurants listed here.

       

      廣州酒家現有總共11家分店。最早的一家位于文昌南路,于1935 年開業。廣州酒家被譽為“食在廣州第一家”,憑借其蟹肉灌湯餃和沙灣原奶撻兩款點心而備受好評。早茶本就價格不菲,與本文推介的其他餐廳相比,廣州酒家名聲更響,相伴而來的價格也更高。

       

      Nanyuan

      南園酒家

       

      If you want to enjoy your tea and dim sum in a quieter spot, Nanyuan on Qianjin Lu is an ideal choice. The colorful windows, blue bricks and green tiles, pavilions, terraces and open halls all showcase Lingnan culture. Although the dim sum is average, the ambiance15 inside has made it a Guangzhou favorite.

       

      如果想在一個較為安靜的地方喝茶、吃點心,前進路上的南園酒家是個理想的選擇。玻璃彩窗、青磚綠瓦、亭臺樓閣無不展示著嶺南文化。盡管點心很普通,餐廳內的環境卻讓它贏得了廣州人民的喜愛。

       

      Beiyuan

      北園酒家

       

      Beiyuan enjoys a history of over 70 years. Located on Xiaobei Lu, the whole restaurant was built like a private villa in the traditional Lingnan style. The artificial landscape inside gives the whole restaurant the appearance of a well-preserved garden. Beiyuan is another hot hangout for senior citizens with a taste for the classic. Make sure to order red rice noodle rolls and be prepared to raise your voice – the hall is normally abuzz16 with chatter.

       

      北園酒家位于小北路,有著70多年的歷史。這家餐廳建得像一幢嶺南傳統風格的私家別墅。里面的人工景觀讓整家餐廳看起來像一座保存完好的園林。北園酒家是喜好經典粵菜的老年人的另一個熱門去處。來這里一定要點紅米腸,還要做好提高嗓門的準備——因為大家都在聊天,大廳里通常鬧哄哄的。

       

      注釋

       

      1. yum cha 飲茶,早茶。

       

      2. lavish 大量的。

       

      3. delicacy 精美的食物;佳肴。

       

      4. gourmand 喜歡吃喝的人;吃貨。

       

      5. repast 餐;飯菜。

       

      6. yum jou cha 飲早茶。

       

      7. refreshment 食物和飲料。

       

      8. utensil(家庭)用具,器皿。

       

      9. ceramic 陶瓷。

       

      10. ajar(門等)半開著的,微開著的。

       

      11. top up(重新斟滿杯子的)補充飲料。

       

      12. thrush 畫眉。還有一說放走的是金絲雀。

       

      13. incognito 偽裝;隱姓埋名。

       

      14. hexagonal 六角形的;六邊形的。

       

      15. ambiance 周圍環境,氣氛。

       

      16. abuzz 嘈雜的;鬧哄哄的。

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