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      Dionysus and the Legend of Wine
      發布時間:2020年11月01日     張爽 譯  
      來源: 英語世界
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      Dionysus and the Legend of Wine

      狄俄尼索斯與酒的傳說

      The Thracian God of Wine – Zagreus is thought to be the inspiration for the Greek God of Wine Dionysus1 who is more widely known across the world. Dionysus is associated with wine, joy, feasts, the Dionysus’ mysteries2 and has become a synonym for “enjoying oneself”, “having a good time”. So, what is the story of Dionysus?



      色雷斯的酒神扎格列歐斯被認為是希臘酒神狄俄尼索斯的前身,而后者在世界上更廣為人知。狄俄尼索斯與酒、歡樂、盛宴、酒神秘儀聯系在一起,成為了“盡歡”“享樂”的同義詞。那么,狄俄尼索斯的故事是什么呢?


      The legend goes that Dionysus was born from his father’s Zeus’ thigh. Dionysus was yet another of Zeus’ children that was a result of one of his numerous affairs. This is why Zeus’ wife – Hera did not like the boy. On the contrary, all other Olympus Gods were fond of the young Dionysus because he was beautiful and joyful.


      傳說狄俄尼索斯是從他父親宙斯的大腿中出生的。宙斯有許多孩子,都是他風流韻事的產物,狄俄尼索斯是其中之一。這就是為什么宙斯的妻子赫拉不喜歡這個男孩的原因。不過,其他奧林匹斯神都喜歡小狄俄尼索斯,因為他相貌俊美,活潑快樂。


      When he entered adolescence Dionysus started surrounding himself and enjoying the company of the maenads. The name “maenad” literally means “the raging one”. The maenads were a group of women who were famous for their lustfulness, feasts and frivolous spirit. All these characteristics of the maenads drew the young Dionysus and he started enjoying their company regularly until the point when the maenads were the constant entourage3 of Dionysus.


      狄俄尼索斯步入青春期時,開始享受狂女的簇擁和陪伴。maenad字面意思是“發狂的人”。這些狂女以行為放蕩、縱酒宴樂和品性輕浮而出名。年輕的狄俄尼索斯被狂女的這些特點所吸引,開始時時享受她們的陪伴,直到狂女們成為狄俄尼索斯的忠實侍從。


      Soon Dionysus left Olympus with his entourage of maenads and set on travelling and experiencing the world. One of the group’s early journeys took them to a beautiful town with splendid gardens. The wife of the town’s ruler was famous for her unsurpassed beauty. Dionysus heard of her beauty and wished that he seduce her. He saw her in one of the gardens and persuaded to follow him in his journeys across the world. She accepted and escaped from her husband to join Dionysus and the maenads. Thus, she became Dionysus supreme wife.


      不久,狄俄尼索斯和追隨他的狂女們離開了奧林匹斯山,開始游歷世界。啟程不久,他們來到了一個有著眾多絢麗花園的美麗小鎮。城主的夫人是一個絕色佳人,遠近聞名。狄俄尼索斯對她的美貌有所耳聞,想要引誘她。他在一個花園里見到她,說服她隨他環游世界。她答應了,從自己丈夫身邊逃走了,加入了狄俄尼索斯和狂女們。于是,她成了狄俄尼索斯至尊的妻子。


      She had long, red hair, voluptuous body, passionate temper and frivolous spirit, so she became a perfect match for the merry group of travelers. Thus, Dionysus, his beautiful wife and the maenads traveled across the world, enjoying themselves at every stop, organizing feasts and bringing chaos and frivolity. Somehow their behavior mesmerized the ordinary people and wherever they stopped, people discontinued their chores and engaged in the feasts.


      她有一頭紅色的長發,身段撩人,性情熱烈而輕佻,的確是這個歡樂出游隊伍的良伴。于是,狄俄尼索斯便與他美麗的妻子和那些狂女們周游世界,在每一個落腳之處盡享快樂,舉辦盛宴,帶來混亂和歡愉。不知何故,他們的行為迷住了普通百姓,但凡他們所到之處,人們就會放下手中的雜務,參與到宴樂之中。


      One of their stops happened to be a town that was ruled by the brother of the husband who Dionysus left with no wife. This was a perfect opportunity for Hera, Zeus’ wife who did not like Dionysus, to satisfy her desire to punish Dionysus. She appeared in the dream of the deceived husband and pointed to the location of his wife and urged him to avenge Dionysus by killing her. So, it happened. The husband sneaked into the place where Dionysus and his entourage were feasting and speared the beautiful woman with a dagger.


      他們路過一個城鎮,城主恰巧是被狄俄尼索斯誘走妻子的那位丈夫的兄弟。對于不喜歡狄俄尼索斯的宙斯妻子赫拉來說,這是滿足自己心愿懲罰狄俄尼索斯的絕佳機會。她出現在那位被欺騙的丈夫的夢中,指明他妻子的位置,慫恿他殺死妻子,以此報復狄俄尼索斯。事情就這樣發生了。那位丈夫偷偷溜進狄俄尼索斯與侍從們的饗宴之地,用匕首刺死了那位美麗的女人。

       葡萄

      Dionysus was outraged. He immediately turned the husband into a rock and took the dying woman in his arms. He could not bring her back to life because he did not have such powers. However, he wanted to perpetuate her in some way. This is why he wished that she turns into a plant that is wild and passionate like her and the juice of which brings happiness and frivolity like their love. And so, as the woman was dying she turned into a vine tree. Soon, grape bunches were hanging from the tree. Dionysus picked them; their color was like the hair color of his beloved, their taste was like the taste of her lips. Dionysus squeezed the juice out of them and left it aside. He declared days of mourning.


      狄俄尼索斯憤怒不已。他立刻把那位丈夫變成了一塊巖石,把垂死的女人抱在懷里。他不能使她復活,因為他不具此種法力。不過,他想以某種方式使她永世長存。所以,他希望她變成一株植物,像她一樣狂野而充滿激情,它的汁液會讓人快樂而輕狂,就像他們的愛一樣。故而當女人的生命走向盡頭時,她變成了一棵葡萄樹。很快,一串串葡萄從樹上垂下來。狄俄尼索斯摘下它們;葡萄的顏色就像他心愛的人的發色,味道嘗起來就如她的嘴唇。狄俄尼索斯把汁液擠出來,放在一邊。他宣布為亡妻哀悼數日。


      Weeks passed before the heartbroken Dionysus put an end to the days of mourning. He ordered to his group that before they leave they should drink the juice. The fermented juice penetrated their bodies and suddenly they felt divine intoxication, immense happiness and they started feasting like when the beautiful woman was still with them. After they sobered, Dionysus took some branches with him and decided to travel the world, plant the vine tree and teach people how to make wine so that his beloved could be forever alive.


      幾周過后,傷心欲絕的狄俄尼索斯才結束了哀悼。他命令侍從們在離開之前喝下葡萄汁。發酵的汁液浸透了他們的身體,他們突然感到陶醉非凡,幸福無比,并開始歡宴行樂,就像那個美麗的女人還在他們身邊時一樣。他們清醒之后,狄俄尼索斯帶上一些枝蔓,決定周游世界去種葡萄樹,并教會人們如何釀造葡萄酒,這樣他的心愛之人便能永世長存。


      Thus, to this day when we are drinking wine, we are tasting the passionate love of Dionysus and his beloved. The only thing left to relive the memory of the Dionysian feasts is to enjoy wine in a good company, nice setting, and with delicious food. So, come and create your own Dionysian mystery!


      因此,直到今天,我們飲酒時,品嘗到的是酒神狄俄尼索斯和他心上人熱烈的愛。重溫酒神的盛宴,我們要做的就是擇良地、就佳肴,和伙伴們開懷暢飲。來吧,來創造自己的酒神秘儀吧!


      注釋:


      1. 古希臘神話中的酒神和狂歡之神,奧林匹斯十二主神之一。酒神是宙斯與底比斯凡人塞墨勒(Semele)生下的兒子。


      2. Dionysus’ mystery 古希臘的一種儀式,有時會使用迷幻劑和其他催眠技巧(如舞蹈和音樂)來消除壓抑和社會約束,使人得到解放,回到自然狀態。


      3. entourage 伴隨者,近侍。

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