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      英語世界
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      Most Hackers Aren’t Criminals
      發布時間:2021年08月01日     靳德斌 譯  
      來源: 英語世界
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      Most Hackers Aren’t Criminals

      大多數黑客不是罪犯


      By Charles Henderson

      文/查爾斯·亨德森

      譯/靳德斌

      審訂/沛軒


      When asked what his father did for a living, my son explained to his kindergarten teacher that “he steals things, but it’s O.K. because he gets paid to do it.”


      幼兒園老師問我兒子爸爸做什么工作,他解釋道:“他偷東西,不過沒事兒,因為人家給他錢讓他這么干?!?


      He wasn’t wrong.


      我兒子說得沒錯。


      I’m a hacker, and I run a team of hackers. We spend our days discovering ways to break into anything that can connect to the internet – servers, automated teller machines, light bulbs – in an attempt to access information that was never meant to be seen. If we get to it before a criminal does, then we’ve done our job.


      我是一名黑客,并且管理著一支黑客團隊。我們整天尋找方法強行進入可以與互聯網相連的任何設備,如服務器、自動取款機、燈泡等,努力獲取本不該被看到的信息。如果我們在罪犯之前獲取這些信息,那么我們就盡到了自己的職責。


      I’m proud of what I do for a living, just like doctors or lawyers are proud of the work they do. The Texas Department of Motor Vehicles, however, recently took a critical stance on my profession. When I purchased vanity plates1 for my car, the agency was quick to take them away, claiming that a license plate displaying “HACKING” endorsed illegal and criminal activity.


      正如醫生或律師為他們所從事的工作感到自豪一樣,我也對賴以謀生的工作感到自豪。然而得克薩斯州機動車管理局最近卻對我的職業持批判態度。我為自己的愛車購買了個性車牌,該機構迅速將它們沒收,聲稱“HACKING”字樣的車牌支持違法和犯罪行為。


      While this reaction really isn’t the fault of the well-intentioned municipal employee who took away my license plates, it’s a symptom of how a deeply rooted misrepresentation of my profession has created flawed perceptions and stereotypes.


      盡管有這種反應其實不是出于好心沒收我車牌的市政人員的錯,但它卻表明對我職業根深蒂固的曲解如何造成了錯誤的認知和刻板印象。


      The way that hackers are depicted in Hollywood and by the security industry itself has contributed to the word “hacker” becoming synonymous with “criminal.” Hackers are often portrayed as hooded figures in dark rooms who are engaged in illegal activity while jabbing at keyboards and are almost always male. In recent years, television shows like “Mr. Robot” and movies like “Ocean’s 8” have introduced female characters as hackers, but the male hacker stereotype unfortunately prevails.


      好萊塢以及安防行業本身對黑客形象的描述促使“黑客”這個詞成為“罪犯”的同義詞。黑客經常被描繪成在黑屋里罩著帽兜敲擊鍵盤從事非法活動的人,并且幾乎清一色是男性。近年來,像電視劇《黑客軍團》和電影《瞞天過海:美人計》也引入了女性黑客角色,但不幸的是男性黑客的刻板印象依然盛行。


      The stereotypes don’t apply to most hackers in the security profession. Hackers aren’t social pariahs2 who operate in silos3 and work alone. I have been a hacker for over 30 years, and I do not wear hoodies. Some hackers even choose to suit up for the job. And – spoiler alert – women hack too. Offensive security culture is innately inclusive: This is a business in which companies hire hackers to outsmart them, to find an organization’s breaking point before criminals do. Testing a company’s security and coming up with creative ways to hack into it is something that requires diverse teams and diverse mind-sets.


      這些刻板印象并不適用于安防行業的大多數黑客。黑客不是獨自工作的社會棄兒。我已經干了30多年黑客工作,并且不穿連帽短衫。一些黑客甚至選擇穿正裝上班。另外,劇透一下,女性也做黑客。進攻型的安防文化本質上是包容的:這種安防業務就是公司雇用能力更強的黑客在罪犯動手前搶先找出機構的失控點。為公司測試安全性并想出侵入公司的創造性方法需要多樣化的團隊和思維模式。


      Back in the 1950s, the modern use of the term “hacking” was coined within the walls of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. For many years after, a hacker was defined as someone who was an expert at programming and problemsolving with computers, who could stretch the capabilities of what computers and computer programs were originally intended to do.


      “黑客”這個詞的現代用法是20世紀50年代在麻省理工學院校內創造的。多年后,黑客定義為用電腦編程和解決問題的專家,可以拓展電腦和電腦程序最初設計的任務完成能力。


      Hacking is an activity, and what separates any activity from a crime is, very often, permission. People are free to drive, but they do not have permission to drive 150 miles per hour – that’s reckless driving and it’s a criminal offense. Bankers can transfer their clients’ money, but if they do so without permission, that’s embezzlement. And you’ve never heard of someone being arrested simply for being a stockbroker, because no one is charged for choosing a career in finance – but they’d be arrested if they engaged in illegal activity like insider trading.


      黑客行為是一項活動,將任何一項活動與犯罪區分開來的通常是獲得許可。人們有權自由駕駛,但沒有權把車開到時速150英里,這是野蠻駕駛,是一種刑事犯罪。銀行家可以將客戶的錢轉賬,但如果沒有獲得許可而這樣做,那就是侵占。你從未聽說過有人僅僅因為是證券經紀人而被捕,因為沒有人會因為選擇金融領域作為職業而受指控,但如果他們參與非法活動,如內幕交易,就會被捕。


      Thanks to security researchers’ hacking practices, in 2019 vulnerabilities in a new version of the most common Wi-Fi encryption standard (WPA3) were found before criminals could use them to break into home and business networks. Conversely, just the month before criminals found an unknown vulnerability in Google’s Android operating systems before security researchers did, giving the bad guys full control of more than a dozen phone models.


      多虧安全研究人員的黑客攻擊行動,2019年發現了最常用Wi-Fi加密標準一個新版本存在的漏洞,使罪犯無法利用這些漏洞侵入家庭和商業網絡。相反,就在此前的那個月,罪犯在安全研究人員之前發現了谷歌安卓操作系統的一個未知漏洞,讓壞人完全控制了十多個手機型號。


      Hacking isn’t an inherently criminal activity. Someone who engages in the illegal use of hacking should not be called a “bad hacker” but a “cybercriminal,” “threat actor” or “cyberattacker.” Hackers

      are people like me and my team at IBM – security professionals who are searching for vulnerabilities, hoping to find weak links in our computer systems before criminals can exploit them.


      黑客行為本質上并不是犯罪。從事非法黑客攻擊活動的人不應該叫作“壞黑客”,而應該稱之為“網絡罪犯”“威脅行動者”或“網絡攻擊者”。黑客是像我和我的IBM 團隊一樣尋找漏洞的安全專業人士,希望搶在被罪犯利用之前找到我們電腦系統的薄弱環節。


      Those who commit computer crimes fall into two categories: “black hat” and “gray hat.” A black hat is someone who hacks with malicious intentions (espionage, data theft), seeking financial or personal gain by exploiting vulnerabilities. A gray hat is someone whose intentions may not be malicious but lacks the permission to hack into a system. Whether a particular criminal is a black hat or a gray hat is simply descriptive of the motivation behind what has already been established as illegal activity.


      電腦犯罪分子分為兩類:“黑帽”和“灰帽”。黑帽是惡意侵入的(如刺探情報、盜取數據),利用漏洞尋求經濟或個人利益?;颐笔强赡軟]有惡意但沒有獲得許可而侵入系統的人。某個特定的罪犯屬于黑帽還是灰帽,描述的只是已經確定為非法活動的背后動機。


      Somewhere along the way, the security industry also recruited ethics to help justify hacking behavior, giving us “the ethical hacker” and adding an artificial defensiveness to a profession that has existed since the 1950s. Unfortunately, even accredited security certifications use the adjective in their very title. And while we can’t and shouldn’t fault the general public for referring to us as ethical hackers, I ask you this: Does it sound right to introduce someone as an ethical stockbroker? How about an ethical engineer or ethical professor?


      發展進程中,安全行業也引入了道德倫理幫助解釋黑客行為的正當性,給予我們“道德黑客”稱號,給始于20世紀50年代的這個職業添加了一層人工防護膜。然而不幸的是,連安防資格證書也在其名稱前面加上了這個形容詞。我們不能也不應該指責公眾將我們稱為道德黑客,但請問:把某人介紹為道德證券經紀人聽起來是否合適?道德工程師或道德教授呢?

       黑客

      Hackers play a critical role in keeping companies and people safe. A hacker failing to do the job right is the equivalent to letting a company believe and function as if it’s wearing a bulletproof vest when in fact, it’s wearing cashmere. At IBM, one thing my team, X-Force Red, does is hack autonomous vehicles, planes and trains to make sure that every possible security vulnerability is found and corrected before each machine is shipped. Imagine what bad things could happen if security weaknesses aren’t identified and corrected before those vehicles are out the door.


      黑客在維護公司和個人安全方面發揮著關鍵作用。黑客未能正確地履行職責等同于讓公司以為穿著防彈背心而事實上卻穿著羊絨衫。在IBM,我的X-Force Red 團隊開展的一項工作是攻擊自動無人駕駛汽車、飛機和火車,以便確保每臺機器發貨之前發現并糾正每一個可能出現的安全漏洞。想象一下如果這些運輸工具在出廠前未能發現并糾正安全缺陷會發生什么糟糕的事情吧。


      The misrepresentation of the term “hacker” not only undermines the offensive security community but also distorts legislators’ understanding and perception of hackers overall. The Computer Fraud and Abuse Act, for example, relies heavily on the term and its misinterpretation. For society to have open and productive discussions about security research and penetration testing, we need to set the record straight on who and what hackers really are. Many government officials whom I’ve spoken with understand this. Others choose to take my license plate away.


      對“黑客”一詞的曲解不僅損害了進攻型安防行業,也扭曲了立法者對所有黑客的理解和認知。例如,《計算機欺詐與濫用法》嚴重依賴這個詞及對它的誤解。為了社會就安全研究和滲透測試展開公開和富有成效的討論,我們需要澄清黑客到底是誰,他們做的是什么。與我交流的許多政府官員理解這一點。其他人則選擇將我的車牌沒收。


      注釋:

       

      1. 在美國,很多車牌都有7 個字母長,有些甚至還包括一些特殊字符,如破折號或心形符號。有些人選擇將這個數字/ 字母組合更改為其他字符,這可能會包含或暗示一個或多個單詞。這些車牌需要額外收費,被稱為虛榮車牌或個性化車牌。

       

      2. pariah 為社會所遺棄者。

       

      3. silo(系統內與其他單位不聯系的)孤立單位。

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