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      翻譯擂臺第51期點評
      發布時間:2021年12月07日     發布人:nanyuzi  
      來源: 英語世界
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      翻譯擂臺第51期點評

       

      文/許景城

       

      【原文】

       

      一年一度,北京城又到了熱吃羊肉的時節。

       

      寒意漸濃的晚上,邀上三五好友找一家涮肉館,煽上一個炭鍋,點上兩盤羊肉,要上幾瓶“小二”,邊吃邊喝邊聊些閑話,其樂也融融。待到微醺時,再多煩心事,也都無影無蹤了。

       

      按照《本草綱目》的說法,各類肉食中,凡豬肉:苦,微寒,有小毒。羊肉氣味:苦、甘,大熱,無毒。黃牛肉氣味:甘,溫,無毒。

       

      由于羊肉屬于大熱之物,因此過去北京人講究冬天吃羊肉,像涮鍋子,只有立秋之后才應市,過了立春便再沒有地方吃了。這也是遵從孔老夫子的諄諄教誨——不時不食。

       

      (摘自汪曾祺《京城羊肉爆烤涮》)

       

      本期翻譯擂臺所選的文本節選自中國著名作家汪曾祺先生的散文名篇《京城羊肉爆烤涮》的開頭幾段。

       

      第一段看似簡單,其實英譯起來很不容易,尤其是“熱吃”一詞。此處的“熱”何意?在筆者看來,有三層意思。其一,強調“吃羊肉”這種趨勢、潮流和傳統的季節來臨。其二,呼應文章標題《京城羊肉爆烤涮》的“爆烤涮”,強調羊肉為熱菜,非冷菜,注意原文文章后面其實作者對這些飲食烹飪詞做了一一考據,足見其重要性。其三,對應后面段落提及中醫《本草綱目》中所涉及的“熱”“大熱”等詞,強調羊肉食物的藥性。如何將此三層意思全部表達出來對譯者是個考驗。在本期擂臺的參賽投稿中,未發現有很好處理這一問題的譯文,有些譯文顧此失彼,有些譯文漏譯和誤譯。在筆者看來,用hot一詞或許就可達到效果,即“here comes a hot trend and tradition again to eat ‘hot’ mutton”來釋譯“又到了熱吃羊肉的時節”,前一個hot等同于popular,后一個加了引號的hot指代食物的屬性和烹飪手法,看似直譯,其實是通過重復該詞、合理搭配和運用標點等釋譯策略達到忠實傳詞達意的效果。另外,對于“熱吃羊肉”中“羊肉”的翻譯,參賽投稿中,除了一些誤譯為eat hot beef外,無外乎兩種主要譯法,即“eat (instant-boiled) mutton/lamb”或者“enjoy mutton hotpot”。不管直譯為肉,還是合理轉譯為肉鍋,筆者覺得都可行。

       

      節選原文中作者多處使用排比句式,比如第二段中幾個動作事件的并列。參賽投稿中做得好的也不多見。有些譯文甚至直接打亂順序,重新組合,比如投票候選譯文1、3、4,亦或直接略去部分并列動詞,比如候選譯文2、6。處理比較好的,基本直接再現原文風格的是候選譯文5。再如第三段中《本草綱目》節引部分,句式統一,用詞簡單,干脆利落。投票候選的六個譯文大體都意識到這個句式的排比修辭特征,只是一些譯文句式用詞不夠凝練,比如譯文2、6。其他譯文各有優劣,其中值得一提的是譯文4,局部處理較有特色,將所有涉及中醫的“微寒”“大熱”“溫”等詞統一放置在所修飾肉食的前面,作為前置定語修飾,并且整齊劃一地在對應英文詞后面加上natured一詞以示屬性,此種譯法值得提倡。不過遺憾的是,該譯文(及譯文6)此部分用語不夠簡練,比如重復出現to one’s health這種畫蛇添足的表達。

       

      所選原文文本語言樸實無華,卻富含中國傳統文化負載詞,比如與飲食有關的“涮肉館”“煽…炭鍋”“小二”,與傳統節氣相關的“立春”“立秋”,與中醫有關的“熱”“大熱”“微寒”“溫”,與中國哲學有關的“孔老夫子”,等等。英譯起來著實不易,處理亦須得當。

       

      關于“涮肉館”,譯文有a hotpot restaurant(譯文1、6)、a mutton restaurant(譯文2)、a restaurant(譯文3)、an instant-boiled mutton restaurant(譯文4、5)等。除了譯文3沒有專有名詞概念化之外,其他幾個或多或少都往名詞概念化方向做了嘗試。涮肉,這里毋庸置疑涮的是羊肉片,故此譯文4、5比較達意。

       

      至于“煽……炭鍋”,六個候選譯文的處理皆不理想,未能向譯入語讀者有效傳達北京人吃炭火鍋的精髓。比如:譯文1“a steamy charcoal pot”和譯文2“a boiling charcoal pot”的steamy 和boiling只強調鍋內沸水情況,并未點 出給鍋“煽”炭加熱這一動作;譯文3“a charcoal hotpot”也未將“煽”這個動作譯出;譯文4直接略去不譯;譯文5“burn a charcoal pot”的burn一詞并不等同于“煽”;譯文6僅用重復性的“a hot pot”籠統指稱。何為“煽”?查漢語大詞典可知,作為動詞,其意為“熾盛”“扇火使旺”。故此,筆者感覺用“fan fires up for a coal pot”即可傳神達意。

       

      “小二”一詞,眾所周知,指小瓶的“二鍋頭”。英譯這一中國家喻戶曉的酒文化詞相對容易,六個候選譯文皆采用純音譯策略來處理“二鍋頭”,而對于“小”的處理,有的譯本采用直譯策略,比如small bottles of Erguotou(譯文1)和small-bottled “Erguotou”(譯文5),其他幾個譯本則略去未譯,比如bottles of Erguotou(譯文2、6)、some Erguotou(譯文3)和the Erguotou (a kind of Chinese liquor)(譯文4)。譯文4或許考慮到目標語讀者的接受度,在專有名詞后面用括號的形式對其進行闡釋,此舉值得肯定,然而稍顯冗長。其實可采用音譯加直譯再加意/補譯的方式來翻譯該文化負載詞,即small-bottled Erguotou spirits,簡潔達意。

       

      對于原文中涉及的兩個節氣“立春”“立秋”,六個譯文中,將其進行概念化(即專有名詞化)翻譯的有譯文2、3、5,其他幾個譯文雖直譯達意,卻未能凸顯中國獨特的節氣文化。

       

      有關“熱”“大熱”“微寒”“溫”等這些獨特的中醫文化負載詞的翻譯,有時可直接模糊化處理,用籠統的英文詞hot、hugely/largely hot、slightly cold和warm來對應。若在文中首次出現,建議還是用heat-natured、hugely/largely heat-natured、slightly cold-natured、warm-natured的形式來指代。當然,還可使用腳注形式對每個詞解釋說明。不過,隨著中國文化軟實力不斷增強,以及中醫文化的海外接受度、認可度、知名度逐漸提高,有時添加腳注反顯多余。六個譯文中,有的采用籠統模糊策略,比如譯文3;有的采用adj.+natured的形式,比如譯文4;有的采用be of +n.的句式,比如譯文3、5;還有的采用be adj. in nature/property的形式,比如譯文2。比較有趣的是譯文1和6:譯文1用slight cold feeling指“微寒”,用body-warming既指“大熱”也指“溫”,原文指食物屬性和藥性,譯文貌似想突出藥效,然而若仔細研讀其譯文并根據前后搭配,發現這些表述難免又產生歧義;譯文6所用表述cold food、hot food、warm food也同樣會產生歧義。

       

      關于孔夫子的教誨“不時不食”,原文是一個否定式的直接引語祈使句式,四個字言簡意賅、鏗鏘有力,而六個候選譯文皆采用意譯轉譯策略,多數采用肯定式的陳述和轉述句式,失去了原文的警示效果。有的譯文雖保留祈使句式,比如譯文2、3,卻因文字不簡練和采用肯定式而令警示效果打折。建議直接譯為“Never eat unseasonal food!”。

       

      至于“孔老夫子”的翻譯,六個候選譯文皆譯為Confucius,并無不可。然而,Confucius一詞只是孔夫子的音譯,夫子乃舊時對學者的尊稱,汪曾祺先生加上“老”字,說明其對孔子的敬意是“更上一層樓”,故此筆者感覺在Confucius前面加Master一詞或許更好。

       

      在撰寫點評的過程中,筆者注意到幾位讀者在本期擂臺投票推文留言區關于“凡豬肉”的留言,這場小小的辯論甚是有趣,一方認為是豬肉一品種,另一方認為是豬肉統稱。筆者通過CNKI文獻查找,未發現有“凡豬肉”為豬肉一品種的說法。另外,查閱《本草綱目》,有獸部一“豕”釋名部分“豕之子,曰豬,曰豚”的表述,以及集解部分如下表述:“頌曰:凡豬骨細,少筋多膏,大者有重百余斤。食物至寡,故人畜養之,甚易生息。時珍曰:豬天下畜之,而各有不同。生青兗徐淮者耳大,生燕冀者皮濃,生梁雍者足短,生遼東者頭白,生豫州者咮(喙)短,生江南者耳?。ㄖ^之江豬),生嶺南者白而極肥。豬孕四月而生,在畜屬水,在卦屬坎,在禽應室星?!笨梢?,集解開頭的“凡豬”是籠統稱謂,指普遍意義上的“豬”這個概念,之后,集解進一步說明,不同地方所養的豬,其稱謂也不一樣。這前后其實并不矛盾,二者就是上義詞和下義詞之別。此外,汪曾祺先生在引用《本草綱目》時,只節引部分內容,略去“江豬肉”等內容,直接以“凡豬肉”來對比“羊肉”“黃牛肉”這兩大類食物,足見“凡豬肉”統稱之意。故此,筆者認為此處的“凡”即“但凡”“凡是”“一般意義上”“普遍意義上”之意。譯文用不可數名詞pork這一籠統概念便能忠實傳達原文之意。大家為準確翻譯而深入查閱資料的精神值得鼓勵和贊揚,更希望大家在探討翻譯問題時能就問題本身做有理有據的交流,避免意氣用事和過激言論,真正領悟批判性思維的精髓,這樣方能有大收益和大進步。

       

      譯路漫長艱難,譯途云遮霧罩。譯無定法,譯道難尋。以上分析為筆者之淺見甚至愚見,僅供各位參考,不當之處還望諒解。

       

      參考譯文:

       

      Once a year, here in Beijing comes a hot trend and tradition again to eat “hot” mutton.

       

      On an increasingly chilly night, how amusing it is to invite a handful of friends to an instant-boiled mutton hot-pot restaurant where we can fan fires up for a coal pot, order two plates of mutton and several little-bottled “Erguotou spirits”, and then relish them while tittle-tattling. As tipsiness arrives, disquietude, however mounting, will vanish into thin air.

       

      As recorded in The Compendium of Materia Medica, among all types of meat, pork tastes bitter, slightly cold-natured, and slightly poisonous; mutton smells bitter, sweet, largely heat-natured, and nonpoisonous; the yellow cattle boast sweet, warm-natured and non-toxic meat.

       

      Since mutton is hugely heat-natured, the Beijinger in the past paid particular attention to feasting on mutton in winter. For example, instant-boiled mutton hot-pots were served only in the wake of the Start of Autumn. Posterior to the Start of Spring, however, there was no place to savor them. This custom also complies with Master Confucius’s indoctrination: Never eat unseasonal food!

       

      (From Wang Zengqi’s article “Stir-fried, roasted or instant-boiled mutton in Beijing”)

       

      優勝譯文:

       

      譯文1:@ヴィンセント

       

      Once again, it’s the season of the year for people in Beijing to enjoy mutton hotpot.

       

      Few things are better than eating out with several friends in a hotpot restaurant as winter is draping a chilly cloak. Sitting around a steamy charcoal pot, you can have fun chatting with friends while tasting mutton and drinking small bottles of Erguotou. By the time you get tipsy, all the troubles would be put behind you.

       

      According to "Compendium of Materia Medica", among all kinds of meats, pork is bitter with slight cold feeling and small poison, while mutton smells bitter, sweet,featuring body-warming and non-toxic, and yellow beef is sweet, body-warming, non-toxic.

       

      The public believes mutton has the therapeutic effect of warming the body, which thus makes it an ideal food for winter. In the past, this kind of food like mutton hotpot was only served during the colder months after the beginning of fall, which goes in tandem with Confucius’ concept of adapting your diet to the changing seasons.

       

      譯文4:@就叫仙女吧

       

      In Beijing, the season for mutton comes again.

       

      In the evening when there is a stronger chill in the air, it seems a great pleasure for me to spend few hours with some of my close friends in an instant-boiled mutton restaurant. There, with the instant-boiled mutton and the Erguotou (a kind of Chinese liquor), we could enjoy the food, the liquor and chat with each other at the same time. How joyful it is! Then, all the vexation will go with the wind, when we are slightly drunk.

       

      According to the Great Pharmacopoeia (a Chinese herbology volume written by Li Shizhen during the Ming dynasty), the cold-natured pork tastes bitter, and has little negative effects to one’s health; the hot-natured mutton tastes both sweet and bitter, and will do no harm to one’s health; and similarly, the warm-natured beef tastes sweet and has no bad impact.

       

      Take into consideration that the mutton is hot in nature, in the past, people in Beijing preferred to have it in winter. Take the instant-boiled mutton as an example, it always prevailed in the autumn, but after the beginning of the spring people may failed to find it. That, in fact, is in line with Confucius’s “Seasonal Eating”.

       

      譯文5:@王晶

       

      That time of year comes again when mutton finds its way into instant-boiled pots in Beijing.

       

      On a chilly evening, you invite several friends to an instant-boiled mutton restaurant, burn a charcoal pot, order a few plates of mutton and a couple of small-bottled “Erguotou”, a kind of Chinese liquor popular in Beijing. What a joy it is eating, drinking and chatting with friends over the pot. When slightly drunk, you seem to be free from any worries.

       

      According to the Compendium of Materia Medica, among various kinds of meat, the pork is of bitter smell and of slightly cold nature, with a little poison. The lamb, of hot nature and bitter and sweet smell, is non-toxic. The beef, non-toxic is of sweet smell and warm nature.

       

      Mutton is hot in traditional Chinese medicine, so in the past the people of Beijing made it a habit to have it in winter. Instant-boiled mutton, for example, is only seasonal after the Start of Autumn and out of season in the wake of the Start of Spring, which is also in accordance with the wisdom of Confucius – “We should eat seasonally”.

       

      an excerpt from “Different Cooking Methods of Mutton in Beijing” by Wang Zengqi

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