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      英語世界
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      翻譯擂臺第53期點評
      發布時間:2022年02月16日     發布人:nanyuzi  
      來源: 英語世界
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      【原文】

       

      吃是過年的主要節目。年菜是標準化了的,家家一律。人口旺的人家要進全豬,連下水帶豬頭,分別處理下咽。一鍋燉肉,加上蘑菇是一碗,加上粉絲又是一碗,加上山藥又是一碗,大盆的芥末墩兒,魚凍兒,肉皮辣醬,成缸的大腌白菜,芥菜疙瘩,——管夠,初一不動刀,初五以前不開市,年菜非囤集不可,結果是年菜等于剩菜,吃倒了胃口而后已。

       

      “好吃不過餃子,舒服不過倒著”,這是鄉下人說的話,北平人稱餃子為“煮餑餑”?!ο沟哪且活D,還有考究,其中一只要放進一塊銀幣,誰吃到那一只主交好運。家里有老祖母的,年年是她老人家幸運的一口咬到。誰都知道其中作了手腳,誰都心里有數。

       

      ——摘自梁實秋《北平年景》

       

      本次翻譯擂臺節選文本源自中國現當代散文家、學者、文學批評家、翻譯家梁實秋先生的思鄉散文名篇《北平年景》,主要圍繞作者回憶兒時20世紀初北平的年味兒,尤其過年吃的風俗。

       

      要英譯好這兩段,需先了解作者的文風。因文學家兼文論學者雙重身份,其文風主要為:取材于生活百態,洞察細微;內容引經據典,內涵豐厚;語言嚴謹,簡潔樸實,嚴肅諧趣,文采兼顧。

       

      節選原文第一段中“主要節目”一詞體現了作者嚴肅中帶有風趣和文采的特點。英譯時該用何詞?activity?event?或 thing?顯然這些詞略顯寡淡。直譯為program,或更能傳神達意,因該詞本身除了有目標明確的活動之意外,亦有隱喻色彩濃厚的節目之意,其功能對等地保留了原文作者以筆為器、以心為鏡、以年為材將北平過年的吃俗當做一檔節目來“拍攝”、記錄、反映和講述,進而供讀者品鑒的隱喻手法。

       

      “下水”何意?最直白的意思便是進入水中,或乘船時順流而下之意,或在粵語中同“落水”等等與水有直接關系的含義。參賽投稿中,不少譯者將其理解為下鍋水煮的意思。然而真是如此?根據前后上下語境可知,其實此處應理解為可食用的牲畜內臟,比如牛下水、羊下水、豬下水、鴨下水等等。英文最合適的對應詞便是offal,英文解釋為“the entrails and internal organs of an animal used as food”。而一些參賽投稿所使用的 viscera 或 intestine,則屬中性詞,其意亦包含人體的內臟,故此不夠確切。

       

      北京冬奧會2022年2月14日上午舉行的自由式滑雪女子坡面障礙技巧資格賽中,谷愛凌(Ailing Eileen Gu)第二跳結束后在休息區等分數時吃起了隨身攜帶的韭菜盒子以補充能量,事后外國記者在采訪時向她提問何為韭菜盒子,她一時語塞,不知如何用英語正確表述這一北方傳統小吃,在嘗試解釋韭菜盒子時,向周圍的人詢問餡兒中的韭菜和粉絲怎么說,略顯尬萌,自嘲自己英語今日不在線上。冬奧官網當日晚些的新聞報道中,外國記者用自己的話轉述了谷愛凌說的韭菜盒子,即“a kind of rice noodle with Chinese chives”1??梢?,外國記者所理解的粉絲在英文中是 rice noodle ?!胺劢z”看似一個司空見慣的食品詞,英譯時卻容易出錯。要想翻譯準確到位,需先了解其主要成分。在北方主要由綠豆或紅薯淀粉制作而成,因成品為絲狀,故曰粉絲。在南方,除了薯類淀粉之外,亦有大米磨成粉制作而成,因成品為長條狀截面粗圓狀或細圓狀或扁狀,故此或叫“粉干”(比如福建福州),或叫“米粉”(比如廣西桂林),或叫“米線”(比如云南),或叫“冬粉”(比如臺灣)?;氐竭x文段落,講的是北京“粉絲”,可知主要由綠豆或紅薯淀粉制作而成。明確這一點之后,我們大概就可以進行英譯了。有參賽投稿譯成 vermicelli、bean vermicelli 或 Chinese vermicelli。這樣譯可好?當然,意大利語詞 vermicelli,其所指之物主要成分也是綠豆或紅薯淀粉或麥粉或米粉,然而這是意大利語說法。在以往主要以西學東漸、中國文化不自信的背景之下,這種套譯有一定的可取性。如今,在不斷強調中國文化自信、中國文化走出去以及講好中國故事的新時代大背景之下,若繼續沿用套譯策略,則有矮化中國文化之嫌,顯得譯者自身文化不自信。故此,建議音譯為 fensi(如 vermicelli、spaghetti、mah-jong、jiaozi 這些音譯詞使用的人多了,流傳廣了,隨著國家綜合實力上升,自然而然便成了英語世界語言的一部分),或按照南北區域不同的配料做法,可意譯為 rice/bean/sweet-potato-thread noodles。

       

      “芥末墩兒”的英譯也是一個難點。不了解其為何物及其制作過程,也很難譯好。此菜品為老北京特色小食,過年必備涼菜之一。該菜名因其做法而得名。主要食材是大白菜,制作方法是去掉白菜老幫后,將整棵白菜橫放切成3-5厘米長的圓墩狀,沸水焯后,層層碼在壇中,層與層之間放上芥末面和白砂糖,然后加入少許醋,封壇2-4天后便可食用?!敖婺┒諆骸笔菍S忻~,英譯時,若采用釋譯,比如“preserved/pickled celery cabbages transected in the shape of 3-5cm piers or pillars with mustard, sugar and vinegar”,則顯得冗長,放在文中亦會打亂或失去原文并置幾個菜名那樣的緊湊節奏感。故此,建議使用簡短的專有名詞化表述,比如百度百科所給的英譯詞 mustard piers2,或者如果避免歧義,可以稍微補足,即 mustard-preserved and pier-shaped celery cabbage,一定程度保留原詞的形象隱喻,之后再進行腳注或尾注。

       

      同樣,“肉皮辣醬”的翻譯也需要注意。然而,其難點或許不在于譯文表述長短的問題,而是在于“皮”的理解。英文中指皮的單詞較多,容易混淆,比如 husk、bran、shell、pod、rind、peel、skin 等,皆可指皮,然而含義不一。名詞 husk 專指谷物外皮,脫落后成為 bran,即麩皮或糠;shell 主要指殼類皮;pod 指豆莢;rind 和 peel 專指果皮,而 rind 還可以指熏肉類的皮,比如成立于1960年的英國 Mr. Porky(中文為脆脆豬、豬先生脆條或炸豬皮)主打的幾款小零食,如脆條Scratching、原味脆條Original Scratching、脆片Crispy Strips,其產品介紹食材時用了 pig rind 或 pork rind。skin則主要指肉皮。豬(肉)皮,既可以用 pork/pig skin,也可以用 pork/pig rind,只不過前者專指生豬身上任何的皮,尤指腹部和后背上的豬皮,后者專指油炸腌制熏過的豬皮小食。3換言之,前者主要指原材料,后者主要指成品。那么,回到北京傳統小食“肉皮辣醬”,其制作方法雖略有差異,卻主要是將生豬皮洗凈、焯水、煮熟,加入辣椒醬調味,之后冷卻入盆或裝瓶。從中可知,主要使用的是生豬皮。故此,用 pork/pig skin 比較合適。

       

      梁實秋先生的旁征博引和樸實無華的文風在節選段落中亦有體現,即“好吃不過餃子,舒服不過倒著”。要翻譯好,實屬不易。一方面,這是鄉村俗語,讀起來朗朗上口,譯文選詞和句式結構須謹慎,文體要對等,節奏要對等,不能顯得太文縐縐。比如有些參賽投稿譯為“few pleasures can equal that of eating dumplings and lying on the bed”,就顯得文縐縐。還有一些參賽投稿意思大體翻譯對了,然而兩句話前后音節或詞數不等,導致讀起來非常別扭。另外,“倒著”何意?有參賽譯文譯為“lying”(躺、撒謊)、“lying down”(躺下)、“sleeping”(睡)、“slouch down in bed”(無精打采地躺在床上)、“upside down”(顛倒)等等。這些或多或少均不達意。在筆者看來,“倒著”可以理解為向后坐倒在椅背上放松休息,也可以理解為懶洋洋地躺在床上,重在強調一種放松歇息狀態。綜合考量以上因素,筆者將這句譯為“Nothing is tastier than dumpling; nothing is cosier than lolling.”,通俗達意,朗朗上口。

       

      最后,談談節選文句式結構。如前所述,梁實秋先生的文風是集文學家散文風格和學者散文風格于一體,同時又具有翻譯家身份,故此,句式上嚴謹卻又不失樸實靈動,偶有西化現象,比如文中“的”出現次數不少,這種西化現象正是余光中先生《論“的的不休”》一文所批判的對象。像這樣的句式,英譯起來相對容易些,比如“年菜是標準化了的”,可譯為“The menu for Spring Festival is standardized”。然而選段中樸實靈動形散句式也不少,就比如“一鍋燉肉,加上蘑菇是一碗,加上粉絲又是一碗,加上山藥又是一碗”這一句,翻譯起來可謂不簡單。諸多參賽投稿按照中文原來的句式結構進行英譯,顯得譯文句式非常零散,甚至出現因主語或邏輯主語不明導致語義歧義。著名翻譯研究學者劉宓慶先生在其著作《新編漢英對比與翻譯》(2006)一書中提到過漢英語法區別,大體可歸納為英語以形式為主軸,漢語以意念為主軸。因此,在英譯如上句子時,為了避免歧義和句式零散,可以重新整合,將類似項合并,形成一句緊湊的譯文,如筆者所譯“A pot of stewed meat can turn into different dishes when added with such sustenance as mushrooms, bean-thread noodles or yam.”。

       

      譯無定譯,法無定法。久久為功,終有所成。共勉之。以上分析為筆者之淺見甚至愚見,僅供各位參考,不當之處還望諒解。

       

      注釋:

       

      1. https://olympics.com/en/featured-news/ailing-eileen-gu-exclusive-slopestyle-olympics

      2. https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E8%8A%A5%E6%9C%AB%E5%A2%A9%E5%84%BF/2794556?fr=aladdin

      3. https://cookindocs.com/pork-rind-vs-skin/

       

      參考譯文:

       

      Eating is a major program of Chinese New Year. The menu for Spring Festival is standardized, almost the same for every family. A large household tends to buy a whole hog, including its offal and head, to be processed and cooked separately and then served as food. A pot of stewed meat can turn into different dishes when added with such sustenance as mushrooms, bean-thread noodles or yam. Big basins of “mustard-preserved and pier-shaped celery cabbage”*, fish jelly, and cooked pork skin in chili sauce, and huge vats of pickled cabbages and swedes are traditionally requisite and adequate. Customarily, no knife is used on the first day of the Lunar New Year and no market opens before the fifth. The New Year’s aliments are habitually stocked but probably end up as “leftovers”, rendering the appetite lost ultimately.

       

      As a rustic saying goes, “Nothing is tastier than dumpling; nothing is cosier than lolling.” Dumpling or Jiaozi in Chinese is called by people in Peking as “cooked pastry”. … The midnight meal on the New Year’s Eve is quite particular. A piece of silver coin should be wrapped into one of the dumplings. Good luck is believed to come upon whoever eats that dumpling. If there is an elderly grandmother in a family, she is always lucky every year to bite into a coin-wrapped dumpling. Everyone deep down inside shares a tacit understanding of what was originally intended.

       

      (From “Lunar New Year Festivity in Peking” by LIANG Shiqiu)

       

      * As a traditional cold dish in Beijing, it is known as preserved/pickled celery cabbages transected in the shape of 3-5cm piers or pillars with mustard, sugar and vinegar.

       

      優勝譯文:

       

      @阿耳佱

       

      It is a major activity to eat on the Spring Festival. The menu for the Spring Festival is standardized, which is the same for every family. Families with a flourishing population would buy a whole pig, including its offal and head, which are cooked separately. A pot of stewed pork can collocate with mushroom, vermicelli or yam to form a dish. Big basins of mustard mounds, fish jellies, pork skin chili sauce, as well as jars of pickled cabbages and rutabagas are all adequate. The tradition that no knife on the lunar New Year's Day and no business opening before the fifth day of the first Chinese lunar month leads to a must of a hoard of dishes on the Spring Festival, which make the dishes equivalent to leftovers, and people would not give up eating them until disgusting.

       

      “Nothing is more delicious than dumplings, nothing is more comfortable than lying”, this is a saying from country people. Beijingers call dumplings as “sweet pastry” ... The dumplings of the meal on the Spring Festival Eve is fastidious, with one of them has a coin as its filling. The member who eat it will have good luck. Families with old grandmother would always make her eat the special one luckily, while all members know why.

       

      — From Scopes of the Sping Festival by Shiqiu Liang

       

      @syyy.

       

      Eating is the primary program of the Spring Festival. Dishes prepared for the New Year are standardized, which means all families share a similar style. Populous families need a whole pig, process its offal and head respectively, and finally enjoy them. A pot of stew, with the addition of mushroom or bean vermicelli or Chinese yam, can be served as a wonderful dish. Apart from that, large pots of mustard, fish jelly, chili sauce, jars of pickled cabbage, mustard greens-all of these are bountifully provided. Knives are avoided on New Year’s Day and markets aren’t open until the fifth day of the New Year. Due to the fact that meat and vegetables must be stored up, much of them become leftovers, which merely spoil people’s appetites.

       

      “There is nothing more palatable than dumplings; there is nothing more comfortable than lying in bed”, said by countrymen. People in Peiping call dumplings as “boiled pastries”. Moreover, the New Year’s Eve night snack is particular. A cion is put into one of the dumplings, and the very person who eat it will have good luck. If a family has an old grandmother, it’s always she who fortunately eat this dumpling every year. However, everyone knows the secret.

       

      — excerpted from Peiping Year by Liang Shiqiu

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