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      What Happens to Your Body If You Go Vegan for a Month?
      發布時間:2022年03月01日     張靜 譯  
      來源: 英語世界
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      What Happens to Your Body If You Go Vegan for a Month?

      吃素一個月,身體有變化


      By Elaine K. Howley

      文/伊萊恩·K. 豪利

      譯/張靜


      Whether for philosophical or health reasons, some people are opting to stop consuming animals and are adopting a vegan diet. This approach to eating eschews all animal products, including meat, fish, milk, eggs and even honey.


      出于哲學或是健康原因,有些人打算不再吃肉食,而改吃純素食。這一飲食方式戒絕所有的動物制品,包括肉類、魚類、牛奶、雞蛋,甚至蜂蜜。


      Making the switch can be a challenge for people who are accustomed to incorporating dairy and meat in their diet, but it could offer some health benefits. It might even change your body in certain ways.


      對吃慣了奶制品和肉類的人來說,改吃純素食是一種挑戰,但是,吃純素食對健康有一定益處,甚至能在某些方面改變你的身體。


      But how it might change depends on what you were eating before, says Dena Champion, a registered dietitian at the Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center in Columbus.


      不過,身體如何改變取決于之前的飲食習慣,俄亥俄州立大學韋克斯納醫學中心注冊營養師德娜·錢皮恩表示。該大學位于哥倫布市。


      “The term ‘vegan’ as it pertains to diet only means that one does not eat any animal products. It doesn’t inherently equal healthy, but it can be a healthy diet,” especially if you’re coming from a less healthful way of eating, she explains.


      “當‘純素食’指飲食習慣時,只意味著不吃任何動物制品。素食本身與有益健康并不等同,但它可以成為一種健康的日常飲食”,尤其是在之前的飲食習慣不太健康的情況下,她解釋道。


      “If you’re already eating a diet heavy in plants with minimal animal products, you may see very few changes,” Champion says. But, “if you go from eating a diet heavy in animal meat and dairy and change to a diet consisting of high amounts of fruits, vegetables and whole grains,” you may see changes in several areas.


      “如果日常飲食已經是以植物為主,只吃極少的動物制品,那么改吃純素食帶來的變化可能很小?!卞X皮恩說。不過,“如果是由平時主要吃肉類、奶制品,改為吃大量水果、蔬菜和全谷物”,那你的身體也許會在若干方面發生變化。


      Reduced body weight

      體重減輕


      “Eliminating any major food group, in this case animal proteins, can cause a calorie deficit,” says Kailey Proctor, an oncology dietitian with the Center for Cancer Prevention and Treatment at St. Joseph Hospital in Orange County, California.


      加利福尼亞州奧蘭治縣圣約瑟醫院癌癥防治中心的腫瘤學營養師凱莉·普羅克特說:“減少任何一大類食物的攝入量都會導致熱量不足,這里說的是減少動物蛋白?!?


      Many Americans consume a diet that’s heavy in processed, high-fat meats, which also tend to be high in calories and saturated fat. Removing those animal proteins can mean a reduction in calories, Proctor explains.


      很多美國人平時吃大量加工肉制品,這些肉制品脂肪含量高,熱量和飽和脂肪含量也很高。普羅克特解釋道,減少這些動物蛋白的攝入可能意味著熱量的減少。


      Instead of high-fat and calorie-dense proteins like bacon and beef, vegans get their protein from plant-based sources such as: Tofu. Tempeh1. Beans. Soy milk. Legumes.


      純素食者攝入的蛋白質來自植物性食物,例如豆腐、豆豉、豆子、豆奶、豆類植物,而不是培根、牛肉這類食物中的高脂肪、高熱量蛋白質。


      “This can lead to weight loss, and considering that two-thirds of Americans are overweight or obese, this can have a positive impact on body composition2 and health markers,” such as blood pressure and triglyceride (a type of fat) levels in the blood, Proctor says.


      普羅克特表示:“這能使體重減輕??紤]到有三分之二的美國人超重或肥胖,吃純素食對體成分和健康指標都有積極影響?!敝笜税ㄑ獕汉脱褐懈视腿狨ィㄒ环N脂肪)的水平。


      Improved heart and vascular health

      心血管健康改善


      “Diets high in fruits, vegetables and whole grains can lower triglycerides and cholesterol thereby reducing the risk of heart disease,” Procter says. Plant-based protein sources such as tofu and tempeh have no cholesterol3 – cholesterol is a fatty substance that only comes from animal products. It can build up in the vascular system, leading to blockages that could trigger heart attacks or strokes. Eliminating animal products removes cholesterol from the diet, which could reduce your risk of heart disease.


      普羅克特說:“以水果、蔬菜和全谷類為主的日常飲食能夠降低甘油三酸酯和膽固醇水平,從而降低患心臟病的風險?!蹦懝檀际且环N只存在于動物制品中的脂肪物質,會在血管系統中堆積,引起血管堵塞,從而導致心臟病發作或中風。像豆腐、豆豉這樣富含植物蛋白的食物中不含膽固醇。不吃動物制品可以避免在日常飲食中攝入膽固醇,從而降低患心臟病的風險。


      What’s more, a vegan diet tends to be lower in sodium than some other types of diets because most fruits and vegetables are low in sodium. Because sodium can increase blood pressure levels, lowering your consumption of salt and sodium may also contribute to better heart and vascular health.


      此外,由于大多數水果和蔬菜的鈉含量不高,純素食的鈉攝入量比其他飲食習慣更低。鈉會使血壓升高,所以少吃鹽和鈉也更加有益于心血管健康。

       素食

      Improved blood sugar control

      血糖控制改善


      Because being overweight or obese is a major risk factor for developing diabetes, losing weight can lower that risk. One study published in the journal Nutrients in 2018, for example, followed overweight people with no history of diabetes after they switched to a vegan diet for 16 weeks. Those people saw improvements in insulin4 sensitivity and better function of the pancreatic5 cells responsible for producing and releasing insulin. This led to improvements in blood sugar levels.


      由于引發糖尿病的一大危險因素是超重或肥胖,所以減肥能夠降低患糖尿病的風險。例如,2018年《營養學》雜志上發表了一篇研究論文:在無糖尿病史的超重人群改吃純素食后,研究人員對他們進行了為期16周的跟蹤調查。研究發現,這群人的胰島素敏感性上升,負責生產和釋放胰島素的胰腺細胞功能加強,血糖水平從而得到了改善。


      Reduced joint pain

      關節痛緩解


      Fruits and vegetables contain certain compounds called phytonutrients6 that have an anti-inflammatory effect on cells. Also called antioxidants7, these compounds can help reduce the joint pain, swelling and tenderness associated with arthritis and other chronic conditions of the joints.


      水果和蔬菜中含有某些叫作植物營養素的化合物,能夠對抗細胞發炎。這些化合物又叫抗氧化物,能夠幫助減輕關節炎和其他慢性關節病引起的關節疼痛、腫脹和壓痛。


      In addition, if you’re overweight, losing weight can help reduce stress on achy joints in the lower body. The hips, knees and ankles bear the weight of the whole body, so weighing less means less pressure – in some cases, a lot less pressure – on the arthritic joint.


      除此之外,如果超重,減肥能夠幫助隱隱作痛的下肢關節減輕受力。臀部、膝蓋和腳踝承受著整個身體的重量,體重減輕則意味著受力減輕,有時候能夠為患炎癥的關節減輕很大受力。


      Improved bowel health

      腸道健康改善


      Because a healthy vegan diet emphasizes consumption of high-fiber foods like fruit, vegetables and whole grains, that can lead to better gut health and regularity.


      由于健康的純素食飲食強調吃水果、蔬菜和全谷類等高纖維食物,因而能夠幫助改善腸道健康,增強腸道規律性。


      High-fiber, whole grain foods contain prebiotics, which are natural, nondigestible compounds that help support the growth of helpful bacteria in the gut – i.e., you need prebiotics to form probiotics, which are those beneficial bacteria.


      高纖維、全谷類食物中含有益生元,它是一種不可消化的天然化合物,能夠促進腸道中有益細菌的生長。也就是說,你需要益生元來產生益生菌,即那些有益細菌。


      When you’re consuming prebiotics and probiotics in adequate amounts, that can help regulate gut health, which science is increasingly learning can contribute to overall good health. High fiber foods also add bulk to the stool, which can make for better regularity and improved gastrointestinal8 health.


      攝入的益生元和益生菌達到足夠數量時,它們就能幫助調節腸道健康。越來越多的科學研究發現,這有益于整個機體的健康。高纖維食物還能增加糞便體積,從而促進規律排便,改善胃腸健康。


      Reduced cancer risk

      癌癥風險降低


      There’s also the potential to reduce your risk of developing cancer, Proctor says. “Vegan diets, when planned correctly, are also very high in fruits, vegetables and whole grains. These plantbased foods have been shown to reduce the risk of cancer due to their high antioxidant and phytonutrient content.”


      普羅克特說,吃純素食還有可能降低患癌的風險?!霸诖钆浜侠淼募兯厥筹嬍持?,水果、蔬菜和全谷類的占比也很高。經證實,這些植物性食物由于富含抗氧化物和植物營養素,能夠降低患癌的風險?!?


      Covering your nutritional bases

      保證營養均衡


      It’s important to make sure you’re getting adequate amounts of certain nutrients that may be more difficult to get when following a strict vegan diet, Proctor says.


      普羅克特表示,確保攝入充足的特定營養素非常重要,這對嚴格的純素食者來說也許更難做到。


      “The term ‘vegan’ doesn’t exactly mean healthy,” Proctor cautions. “You can have a vegan cookie,” for example, “but at the end of the day, it’s still a cookie.”


      “‘純素食’一詞與益于健康并不等同?!逼樟_克特提醒,比如“你可以吃一塊全素餅干,但歸根結底它仍然只是一塊餅干”。


      As with any other type of diet, the emphasis should always be on consuming whole, fresh foods as much as possible. Read labels on any prepared or processed foods so you know what you’re eating.


      就像其他任何一種飲食習慣一樣,應該始終注意盡可能吃天然、新鮮的食物。對于經過制作或加工的食物,要閱讀其標貼,知道自己吃的是什么。


      And Champion recommends transitioning to a vegan lifestyle slowly. “It can feel really overwhelming to go from eating animal products at every meal to eliminating them all overnight. Allow yourself time to find recipes and make a plan.”


      同時,錢皮恩建議,純素食生活方式的轉變要慢慢進行?!皬拿坎统詣游镏破返酵蝗灰豢诓怀詴屓朔浅2贿m應。要給自己時間尋找菜譜,制訂方案?!?


      Proctor also recommends “combining protein sources to make complete sources of protein.” For example, combining rice and beans, or peanut butter and jelly on wheat bread can provide the full complement of amino acids your body needs to keep muscles strong.


      普羅克特還建議“把含蛋白質食物混在一起吃,從而保證各類蛋白質攝入全面”。例如,大米和豆子一起吃,或者花生醬和果醬抹在全麥面包上一起吃,這能夠為身體全面補充氨基酸,保持肌肉強壯。


      Similarly, look to support adequate protein intake by adding soy foods including tofu, tempeh, edamame, soy milk and soy nuts.


      同樣,可注意添加豆腐、豆豉、毛豆、豆奶和烘焙黃豆等豆類食物,來保證充足的蛋白質攝入。


      You also need to be sure you’re getting enough vitamin B12, which can be problematic for people who follow a vegan diet because vitamin B12 “is only found in animal proteins,” Proctor explains. “Vitamin B12 plays a role in red blood cell production, synthesis of DNA and RNA as well as keeping our nervous system healthy.”


      你還需要確保自己攝入了充足的維生素B12。這對純素食者來說可能是個問題,因為維生素B12“只存在于動物蛋白中”,普羅克特解釋說,“維生素B12 對于紅細胞的生成、DNA 和RNA 的合成,以及保持神經系統健康都具有重要意義?!?


      (譯者為“《英語世界》杯”翻譯大賽獲獎者)


      注釋:

       

      1. tempeh(用酒霉菌使之發酵后食用的)印尼豆豉。

      2. body composition 食品科學技術名詞,指人體總重量中,不同身體成分的構成比例。

      3. cholesterol 膽固醇。

      4. insulin 胰島素。

      5. pancreatic 胰的。

      6. phytonutrient 植物營養素(一些植物中含有的有助于身體健康和預防疾病的物質)。

      7. antioxidant 抗氧化物質。

      8. gastrointestinal 胃腸的。

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