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      英語世界
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      Pets Can Have Depression, Too
      發布時間:2022年07月01日     李品陽 譯  
      來源: 英語世界
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      Pets Can Have Depression, Too

      寵物也患抑郁癥


      By Alia Hoyt

      文/阿利亞·霍伊特

      譯/李品陽

      審訂/孫麗冰


      When Sara Palmer’s Yorkie Kingston suddenly stopped eating or drinking, she feared a serious medical condition. Although relieved when he was cleared of anything immediately life-threatening, a diagnosis of doggie depression threw her for a loop1. Her family had recently moved to another state, and the poor pooch was simply unequipped to communicate or handle the stress fallout. “He was given an IV2 and meds to take for a while,” she recalls. “He got better but still acts strange when he knows we’re going on a trip.”


      莎拉·帕爾默的約克夏犬金斯頓突然不吃不喝,她擔心愛犬患了重病。雖然檢查后排除了即刻危及生命的重疾,這讓莎拉松了口氣,但一紙抑郁癥診斷書卻讓她大吃一驚。莎拉一家不久前搬到了另一個州,而這只可憐的小狗根本無法傳達,也應對不了新環境帶來的焦慮?!敖o他輸了一次液,也喂了一段時間的藥?!鄙貞浀?,“情況有所好轉。不過,知道我們要去旅行時,他的行為還是有些反常。


      When it comes to mental health issues, domestic pets like cats and dogs aren’t as different from us as we once thought. “We have recognized many different types of mental illness in pet animals,” explains Dr. Franklin D. McMillan, a veterinarian and director of wellbeing studies at Best Friends Animal Society. “The parallels between human and animal mental illnesses have been demonstrated by several types of evidence, such as similarities in behavior, physiological measures, brain scans, and response to medications.”


      說到心理健康問題,貓狗這樣的家養寵物并不像我們曾經以為的那樣會有別于人類?!拔覀円呀浽趯櫸锷砩习l現了多種不同類型的精神疾病?!眲游镏褏f會的動物身心健康研究主任、獸醫富蘭克林·D.麥克米倫博士如是說道,“有多種證據證實人類精神疾病和動物精神疾病之間存在相似性,體現在行為、生理指標、腦部掃描和藥物反應等方面?!?


      He adds that the most commonly seen mental illnesses in pets include phobias, compulsive disorders (like constant tail-licking), post-traumatic stress, depression and separation anxiety.


      他補充說,寵物最常見的精神疾病包括恐懼癥、強迫癥(如不停舔尾巴)、創傷后應激障礙、抑郁癥和分離焦慮癥等。


      Some mental-health triggers are unavoidable—reaction to noise—or due to life changes. Other triggers are the result of abuse, excessive loneliness, neglect or poor living conditions. Still others are head-scratchers3.


      有些誘發精神健康問題的因素是不可避免的,如噪聲引起的應激反應或者生活中的變化。有些誘因則是虐待、過度孤獨、被忽視或者糟糕的生活環境。還有一些因素尚未明確。


      “Some of the mental illnesses we see in pet animals can occur for no identifiable reason,” McMillan says. “We know that genetics plays a role in certain psychological conditions. For example, studies have shown that fear of humans can be increased in dogs through selective breeding.”


      “寵物患上某些精神疾病可能沒有明確的原因?!丙溈嗣讉愓f,“我們知道遺傳會影響某些心理狀況。例如,研究表明,通過選擇育種出生的狗更加恐懼人類?!?


      Certain breeds have a predisposition to mental health problems, although it’s hardly set in stone4. McMillan notes that some compulsive behaviors are seen more often in Dobermans and bull terriers than in the general population of dogs. But the reasons for this are a mystery.


      盡管很難下定論,但某些犬種更容易出現精神健康問題。麥克米倫指出,與普通犬種相比,杜賓犬和牛頭?更常表現出強迫行為。然而其中的原因還是個謎。


      “Overall, any dog can be at risk for developing these types of mental disorders. However, when an animal’s environment is far removed from that which they were bred for, such as herding or working breeds in dogs or wild animals living in captivity, the chance for acquired mental disease is far greater,” emails Dr. Richard Goldstein, a veterinarian with Animal Medical Center in New York City.


      “總的來說,任何狗都有可能罹患這些精神疾病。然而,如果動物所處的環境與曾經的成長環境相差甚遠,如圈養牧羊犬、工作犬或野生動物,那么它們患精神疾病的機率就會大得多?!奔~約市動物醫療中心的獸醫理查德·戈爾茨坦博士在郵件中寫道。


      Making the diagnosis

      診斷


      Diagnosing a nonverbal furry friend’s mental illness is challenging. Lynn Frye discovered this the hard way when her once-spunky golden retriever died following months of treatment for depression (suspected because she started vomiting intermittently during and after a home move).


      診斷不會說話的“毛孩子”是否罹患精神疾病具有挑戰性。林恩·弗賴伊經歷了傷痛后對此深有體會。她曾經活潑好動的金毛尋回犬從搬家開始就出現間歇性嘔吐,疑似得了抑郁癥,接受幾個月的抑郁癥治療后還是去世了。


      However, the true problem was a towel, left inside the pup when she was spayed, that eventually blocked her intestines. “I warn others not to take a depression diagnosis at face value5, especially if their dog has recently had surgery,” Frye says. “It didn’t feel right at the time and I’ll always wonder if I could have done more. When she was officially diagnosed with the blockage and died, my immediate thoughts went back to how she was so sick shortly after the surgery and they said she was depressed. It made me sick to think that had I pushed for a different diagnosis we might have caught it.”


      然而,真正的原因是這只小狗在做絕育手術時有塊手術巾落在了她體內,最終堵塞了她的腸道?!熬嫫渌B狗人士,不要輕信抑郁癥診斷結果,尤其是在狗狗近期做了手術的情況下?!备ベ囈琳f道,“當時我就感覺情況不對勁,我一直在想,要是能多做些什么就好了。她正式被診斷為因腸道堵塞而離去的時候,我立刻回想起做完絕育手術后不久她無精打采的模樣。醫生說她得了抑郁癥。如果我堅持要求醫生重做診斷,興許就能發現問題。想到這一點,我就懊惱不已?!?


      Although Frye’s case is pretty rare, it highlights the difficulties with pet diagnoses. “Because we can’t ask pets what they are thinking or feeling, the only clues we have to determine whether a pet’s mental status is good is by assessing their behavior,” says Dr. Jessica Vogelsang, a veterinarian with Pawcurious, a pet-centered website. Some of the hallmarks of canine depression, she says, include decreased appetite, acting disoriented or lost at home, a sudden onset of aggression, lack of interest in exercise, sleeping more than normal and regression in housetraining.


      弗賴伊的情況極為罕見,卻說明寵物疾病診斷并非易事?!拔覀儧]法詢問寵物的想法或感受,所以判斷它們精神狀態好壞的唯一途徑就是評估其行為?!睂櫸锞W站“好奇爪”的獸醫杰茜卡·福格爾桑博士說道。她還指出,犬類抑郁癥的典型癥狀包括食欲減退,精神萎靡地待在家里,突然變得有攻擊性,懶得活動,嗜睡,家庭行為訓練能力退化等。


      But just because your pup is exhibiting these signs doesn’t mean it is depressed. “The first step is to visit the veterinarian and make sure there isn’t a medical condition that is causing the change in behavior,” Vogelsang says. “You’d be astounded at the number of ‘depressed’ older dogs who were actually arthritic, and pepped up with proper pain management.”


      但是僅憑愛犬表現出上述癥狀,并不能說明它得了抑郁癥?!笆紫纫獛タ传F醫,確保不是生理病況導致的行為異常?!备8駹柹Uf道,“很多‘抑郁了的’老年狗其實只是患上了關節炎,適當的藥物治療后疼痛就能緩解,它們便會恢復活力。這種病例的數量之多,可能會讓你大為震驚?!?


      If your pet has been given a medical all-clear and is still having behavioral issues, then behavioral modification, medication or a combination of both might be the solution. Some of the prescription labels might even sound familiar. “Most medications are similar to those used to treat humans with parallel disorders,” Dr. Goldstein says. For instance, the antidepressant Prozac has been used to treat people, dogs and cats—the pet version just has a different name.


      如果體檢顯示寵物身體并無大礙,但其行為仍然失常,那么行為矯正、藥物治療或者兩者結合可能會是解決問題之道。一些處方可能聽上去會很耳熟?!皩τ谙嗨频木窦膊?,大部分用來治療寵物的藥物和用來治療人類的相差無幾?!备隊柎奶共┦空f道。例如,治療人類的抗抑郁藥百憂解也已用于治療狗和貓,寵物用的只不過換了個藥名而已。


      (譯者單位:中國科學院大學)


      注釋:

       

      1. throw sb for a loop 使震驚,使吃驚。

       

      2. = intravenous 靜脈注射。

       

      3. head-scratcher 令人費解的事物。

       

      4. be set in stone 確定不變的,已下定論的。

       

      5. take sth at face value 相信表面。

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