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      英語世界
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      翻譯擂臺第57期點評
      發布時間:2022年07月29日     發布人:nanyuzi  
      來源: 英語世界
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      【原文】


      中午不睡,下午崩潰。即便到了冬天,我也需要小瞇一會,多年來一直如此??纯粗車呐笥淹?,有如此頑強午休習慣的占比很大。


      如在夏天,午睡文化的力量簡直神奇,大家吃罷午飯,整個大樓內一片寂靜,工作停轉,大家約定俗成,各不打擾。


      經常在網絡和報刊上曝光在宜家商場的沙發、席夢思上小睡的顧客,還有在公園長椅、草坪上小睡的游客,我對這些午睡者表示同情,睡意來襲,排山倒海,真的無法阻擋??!大概人與人之間的區別在于隨意和不隨意,你隨意睡可能有礙觀瞻,觸及了文明底線;如果你是一個不隨意的人,午睡必須到一個相對私密的空間,那么就是文明之睡了。


      (摘自陸地《午睡文化》)


      翻譯的語境化轉換


      原文節選自刊發于《羊城晚報》的一篇散文《午睡文化》,語言自然活潑,口語化、日?;攸c明顯,但言淺意深,翻譯時需深入理解,做多層次語境化轉換。


      一、文化語境


      “午睡”作為原文中心詞,在投稿譯文中主要有三種譯法,分別是sleep、nap、siesta。sleep 概念較為寬泛,不夠聚焦,而siesta與漢語中的午睡有著截然不同的歷史文化語境。siesta為西班牙語詞,出現于17世紀中葉,指的是地中?;驘釒У貐^因炎熱天氣無法進行勞作而產生的午睡;而中國的午睡則根植于傳統中醫和儒家修身養性的觀念,經過上千年的發展,已成為一種社會群體的系統性行為,反映了中國人對工作、健康的平衡,是中國人生活哲學的具象化活動,具有一定文化內涵。因此,將午睡譯為siesta,可能造成文化誤讀,不妨以 afternoon nap直接作行為層面的說明,文化內涵在后文補充。


      二、敘事語境


      原文只出現了兩個“我”,其余部分更像是從“上帝視角”描述午睡現象,最后一段中的“你”則像是與讀者對話。事實上,漢語中敘事者所用的“你”“我”很多時候只是泛指,類似英語中的one或someone,并非是對話語境。細讀原文可知,整篇文字都是從作者自身視角出發,對午睡這種社會性文化現象進行觀察與思考,因此,英文語境中,需將敘事視角明晰。這種轉換理念在第三段第一句體現得尤為明顯,原文根據漢語習慣,描述了“報刊曝光午睡游客”的現象,轉換到英語中,以I為抓手,能幫助譯文更好聚焦,語篇性得到增強。


      三、社會語境


      在漢語的社會語境中,“文明”一詞有多重內涵,如廣義上的社會發展的階段、特定時間地區的文化總和等。但原文第三段中的“文明”更為狹義,并非與“野蠻”“未開化”相對,僅指行為層面的禮貌與得體。理解這一點后,就能明白所謂“觸及文明底線”只是公共場合讓人覺得尷尬的“不文明”行為,絕非十惡不赦的野蠻行徑,因此要把握翻譯的“度”,不能直接做字面轉換譯為bottom line of civilization。同理,“隨意”指的是午睡者對午睡地點不講究,在公共場合做不合宜的事情,投稿譯文將其譯為casual難以表達深層含義。


      節選文段從午睡現象描述入手,對傳統慣習與現代社會文明行為準則的關系進行反思,小中見大,語言雖簡單隨意,但要理解透徹、準確轉換、順暢表達并不容易。譯者要從文化、敘事、社會等多維度理解思考,進行技巧性轉換,不被原文形式所束縛,大膽挖掘深層內涵,才能做到更高層次的“忠實”。


      參考譯文:


      Without a nap in lunch hours, drowsiness will creep over me soon afterwards. Thus, I need naps, even on winter days, and I have been a napper for years. In fact, friends and colleagues around me who stick to such a set practice are the majority.


      Napping, as a social convention in China, is widespread in summer in particular, as if casting a sleeping spell on the whole office building. Tacitly, everyone leaves space to others for napping in their lunch break.


      I notice, through newspapers and the internet, that so many are found napping in public places:  on sofas or Simmons in IKEA, and on park benches or the lawn. I fully understand them, for drowsiness is so overwhelming that nobody can resist. Nonetheless, napping manner makes difference. Those who nap in public places embarrass passers-by, which is not a behaviour with decency. On the contrary, if someone is a person of self-control and prefers to nap in personal space, he or she will be regarded as a napper with manner.


      (From “Afternoon Napping” by Lu Di)


      優秀譯文:


      @Brunch


      No nap at noon, no energy in the afternoon. Even during the winter, I also need a short nap, and I have had this routine for years. Many of my friends and colleagues around me also have such a persistent habit--a lunch break.


      Summer, for example, will witness the miracle power of the lunch nap culture. After lunch, the whole building will be steeped in silence, as everyone stops working and agrees to leave each other alone at that time.


      It is common to find customers taking a nap on the couch or Simmons at the IKEA and tourists grabbing a quick nab on a park bench or the lawn to be exposed on the Internet or newspapers. But I am empathizing with these lunch nappers, for I know that the feeling of sleepy cannot be holding back once it comes "aggressively". Maybe the difference between people is that some people are causal and others conscious. A casual person napping at a random place is likely to leave a bad impression, reaching limits of civilization. While it will be a civilized napping if a conscious person chooses to take a lunch break in a relatively private space.


      @Yilia


      For many years, I am in the habit of taking a nap at noon, or I would feel like having all my energy sapped for the whole afternoon. I find myself in need of a shuteye even in winter times. A disproportionate number of friends and colleagues around me are in the grip of this stubborn habit as well.


      In summer times, its spell over us all is magic. As soon as lunch is over, the whole office building is in a hush. All work stops. Everyone seems to be in a tacit agreement: nobody is to disturb anybody else.


      I am sympathetic with those shoppers who are stealing a doze on an IKEA sofa or mattress, or travelers who are taking a snooze on a bench or on the lawn in a park, as is often exposed on the Internet or newspapers. Drowsiness is simply too overwhelming to stop! Probably what distinguishes one napper from another is their sense of decency, or the lack of it. Without the proper amount of decency a napper may sleep in a way that is considered offensive or utterly uncivilized by others. Meanwhile, a more decent napper will always find him/herself a space where at least some privacy is ensured, which, naturally, is the more civilized way.


      Excerpts from The Habit of Taking a Nap, by Ludi

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